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The ways in which humans interact with computers will change dramatically in the coming years. In this book, the field's leading experts preview that future, focusing on critical technical challenges and opportunities that will define Human-Computer Interaction research for years and decades to come. Editor John M. Carroll, a leader of the HCI community, has assembled essays that anticipate tomorrow's state-of-the-art -- and its implications for users, professionals, and society. These essays cover every area of research, including models, theories, and frameworks; usability engineering; user interface software and tools; HCI for collaborative applications; HCI for multimedia and hypermedia; integrating real and virtual worlds; and HCI's impact on society. Discover advanced cognitive models for evaluating user interfaces; preview the future of user interface software tools; and learn how user interfaces can support innovation. Preview tomorrow's intelligent interfaces, recommender systems, and tangible user interfaces; as well as interface solutions for digital libraries and ubiquitous computing systems. Carroll provides cogent introductions to each essay, as well as a detailed preface offering an overview of the entire field.
List of Figures.
Human-Computer Interaction: The Past and the Present, John M. Carroll.
I. MODELS, THEORIES, AND FRAMEWORKS.1. On the Effective Use and Reuse of HCI Knowledge, Alistair Sutcliffe.
Theories and Cognitive Models.
Claims, Products, and Artifacts.
Generalizing Claims and Reusing HCI Knowledge.
Conclusions.2. Systems, Interactions, and Macrotheory, Philip Barnard, Jon May, David Duke, David Duce.
Theory Development in a Boundless Domain.
Systems of Interactors, Macrotheory, Microtheory, and Layered Explanation.
Macrotheory and Interaction.
Capturing Significant Variation in Interaction Trajectories.
Realizing Coherent Type 1 Theories of Interaction.
Extension to Higher Order Systems of Interaction.
Conclusion.3. Design in the MoRAS, George W. Furnas.
Introduction: ++HCI and the MoRAS.
Illustrating the Consequences.
Blindness from Ignoring the MoRAS.
Design Opportunities from Considering the MoRAS.
New Problems Addressed--Needs and Wants.
The MoRAS and ++HCI Design.
Future Directions.4. Distributed Cognition: A New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction, James D. Hollan, Edwin Hutchins, Davis Kirsh.
A Distributed Cognition Approach.
Socially Distributed Cognition.
Culture and Cognition.
Ethnography of Distributed Cognitive Systems.
An Integrated Framework for Research.
Airline Cockpit Automation.
Beyond Direct Manipulation.
History-Enriched Digital Objects.
PAD++: Zoomable Multiscale Interfaces.
Intelligent Use of Space.
Conclusions and Future Directions.
II. USABILITY ENGINEERING METHODS AND CONCEPTS.5. The Efficient Use of Complex Computer Systems, Suresh K. Bhavnani, Bonnie E. John.
Strategies in the Intermediate Layers of Knowledge.
Strategies That Exploit the Iterative Power of Computers.
Acquiring Strategies in the Intermediate Layers of Knowledge.
Generality of Strategies in the Intermediate Layers of Knowledge.
Evidence for the Effects of Aggregation Strategies on Performance.
The Panel Cleanup Task.
How L1 Performed the Panel Cleanup Task.
Cognitive Analysis of the Panel Cleanup Task.
Inefficient Use Reported in Other Studies.
Possible Explanations for Inefficient Computer Usage.
Efficient Strategies Not Known.
Efficient Strategies Known But Not Used.
Discussion of Possible Explanations of Inefficient Computer Usage.
General Computer Strategies beyond Aggregation.
Summary and Future Research.6. User Interface Evaluation: How Cognitive Models Can Help, Frank E. Ritter, Gordon D. Baxter, Gary Jones, Richard M. Young.
The Synergy between Cognitive Modeling and HCI.
The Advantages for HCI.
The Advantages for Models.
A Route to Supporting Models as Users.
The Artifacts of the Cognitive Modeling Process.
The Role of User Interface Management -Systems.
Cognitive Model Interface Management -Systems.
A Functional Model Eye and Hand.
Example Cognitive Models That Perform Interactive Tasks.
A Simplified Air Traffic Control Model.
Tower of Nottingham Model.
Electronic Warfare Task Model.
Limitations of This Approach.
Cognitive Models as Users in the New Millennium.
Implications for Models.
Implications for Interfaces.7. HCI in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Designing to Support Worker Adaptation, Kim J. Vicente.
Case Study: Hedge Funds in August 1998.
What Are Hedge Funds?
Why Did It Happen?
Generalizing the Lessons Learned.
The Global Knowledge-Based Economy and the Demand for Adaptation.
The Global Knowledge-Based Economy.
The Future Demand for Adaptation.
The Relationship between Adaptation and Learning.
How Much Have Things Changed?
Cognitive Work Analysis: A Potential Programmatic Approach.
A Constraint-Based Approach.
Five Layers of Constraint.
Modeling Tools and Design Implications.
The Future: What Can We Be Sure Of?8. Let's Stop Pushing the Envelope and Start Addressing It: The Reference Task Agenda for HCI, Steve Whittaker, Loren Terveen, Bonnie A. Nardi.
The Problems with HCI as Radical Invention.
Radical Invention Is Not Always Effective.
What We Don't Know: Requirements, -Metrics, and Uses of Everyday Technologies.
How We Don't Know It: The Dissemination Problem.
The Reference Task Solution.
Reference Tasks in Other Disciplines.
Reference Tasks in HCI.
Lessons from DARPA and TREC.
How to Define a Reference Task.
An Example Reference Task: Browsing and Retrieval in Speech Archives.
Selecting and Specifying Reference Tasks in the Domain of Speech Archives.
Task-Oriented Evaluation of a Speech Browsing System.
General Issues Arising from Reference Task-Based Evaluation.
Conclusions.9. The Maturation of HCI: Moving Beyond Usability Toward Holistic Interaction, Kenneth Maxwell.
Present Levels of HCI Maturity.
Level 1 HCI: Basic Usability.
Level 2 HCI: Collaborative, Organizational, and Role-Based Interaction.
Future HCI: Level 3: Individualized and Holistic Interaction.
The Future Computing Environment.
Individualized and Holistic Interaction Design.
Moving toward Holistic Interaction.
Summary and Conclusions.
III. USER INTERFACE SOFTWARE AND TOOLS.10. Past, Present, and Future of User Interface Software Tools, Brad Myers, Scott E. Hudson, Randy Pausch.
Themes in Evaluating Tools.
Promising Approaches That Have Not Caught On.
Future Prospects and Visions.
Computers Becoming a Commodity.
Recognition-Based User Interfaces.
End-User Programming, Customization, and Scripting.
Further Issues for Future Tools.
Operating System Issues.
Conclusions.11. Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation, Ben Schneiderman.
Three Perspectives on Creativity.
Levels of Creativity.
Genex: A Four-Phase Framework for Generating Excellence.
Integrating Creative Activities.
Searching and Browsing Digital Libraries.
Consulting with Peers and Mentors.
Visualizing Data and Processes.
Thinking by Free Associations.
Exploring Solutions--"What If" Tools.
Composing Artifacts and Performances.
Reviewing and Replaying Session Histories.
Conclusion.12. Towards a Human-Centered Interaction Architecture, Terry Winograd.
De-coupling Devices from Programs.
De-coupling Devices from Phenomena.
Robust Dynamic Configuration and Communication.
Action and Perception.
Dealing Efficiently with Incomplete and Unreliable Information
Variable Quality Guaranteed Response Rate.
Multiperson, Multidevice, Interaction Modes.
IV. GROUPWARE AND COOPERATIVE ACTIVITY.13. Computer Mediated Communications: Past and Future, Murray Turoff, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Brian Whitworth, Jerry Fjermestad.
Early Roots and Insights.
Quantitative Communication Structures.
Next Generation Systems.
Collaborative Model Building.
Multimedia Communication Systems.
Graphics and Collaborative Model Building.
Pervasive/Mobile CMC Systems.
Conclusion.14. The Intellectual Challenge of CSCW: The Gap between Social Requirements and Technical Feasibility, Mark S. Ackerman.
A Biased Summary of CSCW Findings.
The Social-Technical Gap in Action.
Technical Research in CSCW.
Arguments against the Significance of the Gap.
What to Do?
A Return to Simon: The Science of CSCW.
Palliatives: Ideological, Political, and Educational.
Beginning Systematic Exploration: First-Order Approximations.
Toward Making CSCW into a Science of the Artificial.
Conclusion.15. Social Translucence: An Approach to Designing Systems That Support Social Processes, Thomas Erickson, Wendy A. Kellogg.
Foundations: Social Translucence.
Visibility, Awareness, and Accountability.
Translucence: Visibility and Privacy.
Application Domain: Knowledge Management.
Knowledge Management as a Social Phenomenon.
From Knowledge Management to Knowledge Communities.
Conversation: Knowledge Work Made Visible.
The Vision: Conversationally Based Knowledge Communities.
Implementation: Social Translucence in Digital Systems.
Making Activity Visible.
Abstract Representations of Social -Information: The Babble Prototype.
Some Research Issues.
Social Proxies: What Should Be Represented?
Supporting Coherent Activity.
Organizational Knowledge Spaces.
Conclusion.16. Transcending the Individual Human Mind: Creating Shared Understanding Through Collaborative Design, Ernesto Arias, Hal Eden, Gerhard Fischer, Andrew Gorman, Eric Scharff.
Challenging Problems for the Future of Human-Computer Interaction.
Transcending the Individual Human Mind.
Exploiting the Symmetry of Ignorance.
Recognizing the Need for Externalizations in Collaborative Design.
Supporting New Forms of Civic Discourse: From Access to Informed Participation.
Moving beyond Closed Systems.
Understanding Motivation and Rewards.
Summary of Challenging Problems for the Future of Human-Computer Interaction.
The Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC).
A Scenario: Creating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Design.
The Conceptual Principles behind the EDC.
The Integration of Action and Reflection.
The EDC as an Open System.
Integrating Assessment with Design and Practice.
Assessment through Participatory Design.
Assessment of Open Systems and Emerging Applications.
Assessment of the Effectiveness of Interaction Techniques.
Assessment of Support for the Creation of Shared Understanding.
Use of the EDC in Actual Work Situations.
Beyond Binary Choices.
Conclusion.17. The Development of Cooperation: Five Years of Participatory Design in the Virtual School, John M. Carroll, George Chin, Mary Beth Rosson, Dennis C. Neale.
Stages of Cooperative Engagement.
Transitions between Stages.
Conclusion.18. Distance Matters, Gary M. Olson, Judith S. Olson.
Collocated Work Today.
Remote Work Today.
The Findings Integrated: Four Concepts.
Common Ground--A Characteristic of the Players.
Coupling in Work--A Characteristic of the Work Itself.
Distance Work in the New Millennium.
Common Ground, Context, and Trust.
Different Time Zones.
Interactions among These Factors and with Technology.
V. MEDIA AND INFORMATION.19. Designing the User Interface for Multimodal Speech and Gesture Applications: State-of-the-Art Systems and Research Directions for 2000 and Beyond, Sharon Oviatt, Phil Cohen, Bernhard Suhm, John Bers, Lizhong Wu, Thomas Holzman, Terry Winograd, John Vergo, Lisbeth Duncan, James Landay, Jim Larson, David Ferro.
Introduction to Multimodal Speech and Gesture Interfaces.
Advantages and Optimal Uses of Multimodal Interface Design.
Architectural Approaches to Multimodal Integration and Systems.
Introduction to Multimodal Architectural Requirements.
Multi-Agent Architectures and Multimodal Processing Flow
Frame-Based and Unification-Based Multimodal Integration
New Hybrid Architectures: An Illustration.
Diversity of Emerging Speech and Gesture Applications.
OGI's Quick-Set System.
IBM's Human-Centric Word Processor.
Boeing's Virtual Reality Aircraft Maintenance Training Prototype.
NCR's Field Medic Information System.
Limitations of Current Speech and Gesture Multimodal Systems.
Future Research Directions for Multimodal Interfaces.
New Multimodal Interface Concepts.
Error Handling Techniques.
Adaptive Multimodal Architectures.
Multimodal Research Infrastructure.
Conclusion.20. Technologies of Information: HCI and the Digital Library, Andrew Dillon.
Antecedents of Digital Libraries: The Ideas and the Evidence.
The Major Thinkers.
HCI Enters the Digital Library.
HCI Research: From Enabling to Envisioning.
Stage 1--Interface Design and the Methodological Tradition.
Stage 2--Modeling Interaction: The Theoretical Tradition.
Stage 3--Beyond Usability: Enhancement and the Design of Augmenting Technologies.
Problems with HCI's Role in Digital Library Design.
Do We Really Know Our Users?
Variables in HCI Research and Measurement.
Extending HCI's Remit with DLs.
The Multimedia Mix and Match.
Digital Genres and the Perception of Information Shape.
Learning, Education, and Instruction.
Ubiquity (or "We Want Information Where We Are").
Conclusion.21. Intelligent Interfaces, Henry Lieberman.
Introduction: Advance-Based Interfaces.
Agents and Advice.
Examples of Advice in Interfaces.
Letizia: A Web Browser That Gives Advice.
Mondrian: A Graphical Editor That Takes Advice.
Advice-Based Interfaces in AI and HCI.
More Flexible Planning and Reasoning.
Programming by Example.
The Future of Advice-Oriented Interfaces.
Physically Based Interfaces.
Speech, Natural Language, and Gesture Interfaces.
Advice and the Design of Visual Communication.
Advice as a Tool for Helping People Learn.
Conclusion.22. Human-Computer Collaboration in Recommended Systems, Loren Terveen, Will Hill.
Recommendation: Examples and Concepts.
A Model of the Recommendation Process.
Issues for Computational Recommender Systems.
Major Types of Recommender Systems.
Recommendation Support Systems.
Social Data Mining.
Current Challenges and New Opportunities.
Forming and Supporting Communities of Interest.
Combining Multiple Types of Information to Compute Recommendations.
VI. INTEGRATING COMPUTATION AND REAL ENVIRONMENTS.23. Ubiquitous Computing: Past, Present, and Future, Gregory Abowd, Elizabeth Mynatt.
Computing with Natural Interfaces.
First-Class Natural Data Types.
Error-Prone Interaction for Recognition-Based Interaction.
What Is Context?
Representations of Context.
The Ubiquity of Context Sensing--Context Fusion.
Coupling Context-Aware and Natural -Interaction--Augmented Reality.
Automated Capture and Access to Live Experiences.
Challenges in Capture and Access.
Toward Everyday Computing.
Research Directions in Everyday Computing.
Additional Challenges for Ubicomp.
Evaluating Ubicomp Systems.
Social Issues for Ubiquitous Computing.
Conclusion.24. Situated Computing: The Next Frontier for HCI Research, Kevin Mills, Jean Scholtz.
Grand Challenge #1: Emancipating Information.
Moving Information to People.
Removing the Tyranny of an Interface per Application per Device.
Information Interaction: Making It Real Again.
Grand Challenge #2: Clueing in Those Clueless Computers.
Adapting Information Delivery Using Knowledge of People, Places, and Devices.
Solving Three Hard Problems.
Conclusion.25. Roomware: Towards the Next Generation of Human-Computer Interactions Based on an Integrated Design of Real and Virtual Worlds, Norbert A. Streitz, Peter Tandler, Christian Muller-Tomfelde, Shin'ichi Konomi.
Three Points of Departure.
Information Technology: From the Desktop to the Invisible Computer.
Organization: New Work Practices and Team Work.
Architecture: The New Role and Structure of Office Buildings.
Design Perspectives for the Workspaces of the Future.
Requirements from Creative Teams.
The iLAND Environment.
The Passage Mechanism.
The Beach Software: Supporting Creativity.
Conclusion.26. Emerging Frameworks for Tangible User Interfaces, Brygg Ullmer, Hiroshi Ishii.
A First Example: Urp.
Tangible User Interfaces.
Example Two: mediaBlocks.
Coupling Objects with Digital Information.
Kinds of Digital Bindings.
Methods of Coupling Objects with Information.
Approaches to Physical Representation.
Technical Realization of Physical/Digital Bindings.
Interpreting Systems of Objects.
Mixed Constructive/Relational Systems.
VII. HCI AND SOCIETY.27. Learner-Centered Design: Reflections and New Directions, Chris Quintana, Andrew Carra, Joseph Krajcik, Elliot Soloway.
An Overview of Learner-Centered Design.
Audience: Who Are "Learners"?
LCD Problem: The Conceptual Gap between Learner and Work.
Bridging the Learner-Centered Conceptual Gap: Designing for Learners.
Open Issues In Designing Learner-Centered Tools.
Issues in Learner-Centered Work and Task Analysis.
Issues in Learner-Centered Requirements Specification.
Issues in Learner-Centered Software Design.
Issues in Learner-Centered Software Evaluation.
Conclusion.28. HCI Meets the “Real World”: Designing Technologies for Civic Sector Use, Doug Schuler.
Introduction: A "Network Society."
Support for the Community.
The Seattle Community Network--A Whirlwind Tour.
Opportunities and Ideas.
How Can HCI Research Get Transferred to the Community?
Challenges for HCI.
Conclusion.29. Beyond Bowling Together: SocioTechnical Capital, Paul Resnick.
The Civic Challenge.
How Social Capital Works.
The Anatomy of Social Capital.
Socio-Technical Capital Opportunities.
Removing Barriers to Interaction.
Expanding Interaction Networks.
Restricting Information Flows.
Examples of New Socio-Technical Relations.
Enhanced Group Self-Awareness.
Maintaining Ties While Spending Less Time.
Support for Large Groups.
Introducer Systems: Just-in-Time Social Ties.
Measurement of Socio-Technical Capital.
Case Studies of New Socio-Technical Relations.
Codification of the Opportunity Space and Determining Which Features Are Productive.
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been a focal area for innovative multi-disciplinary computing research and development for the past 25 years. At the dawn of a new millennium, we should ask where the HCI project is going; what critical technical challenges and opportunities will define HCI research and development work beyond the year 2001; what approaches will sustain and enhance the vitality and effectiveness of HCI in this new era; and how HCI will be different from and similar to what it is today. These questions can be addressed both in the broad view and with respect to specific subdomains within HCI.
In spring 1998, Jonathan Grudin, editor of ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, and Tom Moran, editor of Human-Computer Interaction, suggested a coordinated special issue project celebrating "Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium." Because I serve on both editorial boards--and probably because I was unable to attend this meeting--I was asked to coordinate the project.
In late spring, an initial call for papers was circulated for the Transactions. About 50 research groups expressed initial interest, and in the end, 30 papers were submitted for the January 1999 deadline. Thirteen associate editors of the Transactions, Joelle Coutaz, Paul Dourish, Wayne Gray, Jim Hollan, Scott Hudson, Hiroshi Ishii, Robert Jacob, Sirkka Jarvenpaa, Allan MacLean, Brad Myers, Bonnie Nardi, Randy Pausch, and I, helped to manage the review process. The result was a double special issue of the Transactions in March and June 2000. The ten papers from that double special issue are included in this book, with some revision to make them briefer and more accessible to a larger audience.
In February 1999, the Human-Computer Interaction Consortium held a workshop on research visions and directions for the new millennium. A special issue of the Human-Computer Interactions was organized from the papers presented at this workshop. It was edited by Wendy Kellogg, Clayton Lewis, and Peter Polson. The five papers from that special issue are also included here. Human-Computer Interactions has a tradition of presenting rather lengthy and comprehensive papers. I thank this group of authors in particular for heroic revision efforts. In some cases, excellent papers were cut to less than half their original length, with their excellence preserved!
I think both journal special issue projects were highly successful. But journal projects are always limited by what papers are submitted. To help balance content, I solicited 14 papers in addition to the 15 special issue papers from the two journals. Frankly, however, even 29 papers cannot begin to cover the scope of human-computer interaction. I thank this group of authors for writing to my half-baked specifications with such creativity and good nature.
Many experts from throughout the human-computer interaction community served as referees. The energy and insight that can be marshaled for projects like this is awesome.
I hope the efforts of all those who were involved in trying to take stock of where we are and to ponder where we are going will benefit them and the whole HCI community as we take our first steps into the future.John M. Carroll
Abowd, Gregory D., 513-535
Access, to live experiences, 522-524
ACE (Application Construction Environment), 203
Ackerman, Mark S., 303-324, 333, 498
ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), xxx, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxv, 194, 461
ACT-R, 5, 35, 135-136
ACT-R/PM (process motor extension), 5-6, 140, 142
CSCW and, 307-319
EDC and, 362-364
integration of, with reflection, 362-364
perception and, 268-272
social-technical gap in, 307-313
Active Badge, 518
ActiveX controls (Microsoft), 217
Activity, visibility of, 333-334
demand for, 152-157
learning and, relationship between, 155-157
Adaptive strategy choice model (ASCM). See ASCM (adaptive strategy choice model)
Adobe PhotoDeluxe, 250
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). See ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
agents and, 476-477
AI (Artificial Intelligence) and, 481
anytime algorithms and, 482
context-sensitivity and, 483
examples of, 481-483
future of, 483-485
Internet applications and, 483
introduction to, 475-477
Letizia browser and, 477-479, 483-485
Mondrian graphical editor and, 479-480, 483-485
physically-based interfaces and, 484
programming by example and, 482
as a tool for helping people learn, 483
visual communication and, 484
AFCN (Association for Community Networks), 631
advice-based interfaces and, 476-477
use of the term, 431
Aggregate-ModifyAll-Modify Exception strategy, 101-102, 110
Aggregate-Modify strategy, 100, 106, 107-108, 116
Aggregation strategies, 103-110
AI (Artificial Intelligence), xxxv, 265-266, 315
advice-based interfaces in, 481-483
flexible planning and, 481
reasoning and, 481
reference tasks and, 175
Airas, Ernesto G., 347-372
Air Force (United States), 202
Airline cockpit automation, 83
traffic control (ATC) model, 132-125
travel information systems, 44-45
Aish, R., 593
Alexander, C., 327
Kleinberg's algorithm, 496
for recommender systems, 491, 504-505
Alto computer, xxix
Amazon.com, 251, 499
Analogies, for design, 63-64
Anderson, John, 65
Answer Garden system, 310, 319, 498
Anytime algorithms, 482
AOL (America Online), 168
APIs (application program interfaces), 263
Application Construction Environment (ACE). See ACE (Application Construction Environment)
Application program interfaces (APIs). See APIs (application program interfaces)
Architects, of buildings, 253-254. See also Architecture
Architecture(s). See also Architects, of buildings
for multimodal speech, 426-435, 451-452
new hybrid, 433-435
roomware, 557-558, 560
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), xxxiii
Arrow's paradox, 290-291
Artificial Intelligence (AI). See AI (Artificial Intelligence)
ASCM (adaptive strategy choice model), 113
Assessment. See also Evaluation
EDC and, 364-366
of the effectiveness of interaction techniques, 366
of emerging applications, 366
integrating, with design and practice, 365
of open systems, 366
through participatory design, 365-366
of support, for the creation of shared understanding, 366-367
Association for Community Networks (AFCN). See AFCN (Association for Community Networks)
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). See ACM (Association for Computing Machinery)
Audience, conversation with the, 331
Audio Aura, 534
Augmented reality, 521, 555
Automatic techniques, 221
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is the study and the practice of usability. It is about understanding and creating software and other technology that people will want to use, will be able to use, and will find effective when used. The concept of usability, and the methods and tools to encourage it, achieve it, and measure it are now touchstones in the culture of computing.
Through the past two decades, HCI emerged as a focal area of both computer science research and development and of applied social and behavioral science. Some of the reasons for its success are straightforwardly technical: HCI evoked many difficult problems and elegant solutions in the recent history of computing--for example, in work on direct manipulation interfaces, user interface management systems, task--oriented help and instruction, and computer-supported collaborative work. Other reasons are broadly cultural: The province of HCI is the view the nonspecialist public has of computer and information technology and the impact that technology has on their lives in the sense that it is the visible part of computer science and technology. The most recent reasons are commercial: As the underlying technologies of computing become commodities, inscribed on generic chips, the noncommodity value of computer products and services resides in applications and user interfaces--that is, in HCI.
The beginning of HCI is sometimes traced to the March 1982 (U.S.) National Bureau of Standards conference, "Human Factors in Computer Systems," though related conferences and workshops were conducted throughout the world at about that time. It is surely true that after the Bureau of Standards conference, HCI experienced meteoric growth. However, four--largely independent--threads of technical development from the 1960s and 1970s provided the foundation that allowed this interdisciplinary program to gel so rapidly in the early 1980s.These four threads were prototyping and iterative development from software engineering; software psychology and human factors of computing systems; user interface software from computer graphics; and models, theories, and frameworks from cognitive science. It is interesting to remember these four roots of HCI, since the concerns that evoked them and that brought them together are still underlying forces in HCI today. Prototyping and Iterative Development
In the 1960s, advances in computer hardware enabled new applications requiring software systems of far greater scale and complexity than before. But these greater possibilities exacerbated problems of software development: cost overruns, late delivery, and ineffective and unreliable systems that were difficult to maintain. This was termed the "software crisis." It led to the emergence of software engineering as a professional discipline.
The software crisis was never resolved per se. Rather, it helped to establish design and development methods as a central topic in computing. Early approaches emphasized structured decomposition and representation of requirements and specifications, and a disciplined workflow of stages and hand-offs called the "waterfall." Indeed, this was part of a broad movement toward more formal design methods during the 1960s (Jones 1970).
However, empirical studies of the design process and practical experience in system development raised questions about the new design methods. A prominent case was Brooks's (1975/1995) analysis of the development of the IBM 360 Operating System, one of the largest and most scrupulously planned software design projects of its era. Brooks, the project manager, observed that critical requirements often emerge during system development and cannot be anticipated. He concluded that software designers should always "plan to throw one away."
This was a striking lesson and one that continues to inspire studies of design. Design is now seen as opportunistic, concrete, and necessarily iterative. Designers typically work toward partial solutions for subsets of requirements, using prototypes to evoke further requirements and, indeed, to reformulate the goals and constraints of the problem. By providing techniques to quickly construct, evaluate, and change partial solutions, prototyping has become a fulcrum for system development.Software Psychology and Human Factors
The software crisis intensified interest in programming as a human activity. It heightened the need for more programmers, for better-trained programmers, for more productive programmers. The development of time sharing and interactive computing allowed new styles of programming and made the dynamics of individual programmer activity more salient. Programming became recognized as an area of psychology involving problem solving and symbol manipulation (Weinberg 1971).
Through the 1970s, a behavioral approach to understanding software design, programming, and the use of interactive systems developed rapidly. This work addressed a wide assortment of questions about what people experience and how they perform when they interact with computers. It studied how system response time affects -productivity; how people specify and refine queries; how syntactic constructions in programming languages are more or less difficult; and how aids like mnemonic variable names, in-line program comments, and flowcharts support programming. By the end of that decade, a software psychology research community had formed (Shneiderman 1980).
This work inspired many industrial human factors groups to expand the scope of their responsibilities toward support for programming groups and the usability of software. During the latter 1970s, several extensive compilations of research-based guidelines appeared, and most computer manufacturers (there were no exclusively-software companies at that time) established usability laboratories, whose scope of responsibility steadily expanded.New User Interface Software
Before the 1960s, the notion of "user interface" was completely unarticulated. The focus of computing was literally on computations, not on intelligibly presenting the results of computations. This is why the early visions of personal, desktop access to massive information stores (Bush 1945), graphical and gestural user interfaces (Sutherland 1963), and synchronous collaboration through direct pointing and shared windows (Engelbart and English 1968) are historically so significant.
Through the 1970s, advances in workstation computers and bit-mapped displays allowed these early visions to be consolidated. A prominent example is work at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center on the Alto computer and the Smalltalk-72 environment. It is striking that the essential concepts of desktop computing that guided the next 20 years of research and development emerged during this early period.Models, Theories, and Frameworks
During the latter 1970s, cognitive science had coalesced as a multidisciplinary project encompassing linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, psychology, and computer science. One principle of cognitive science was that an effective multidisciplinary science should be capable of supporting application to real problems and to benefit from it. Many domains were investigated, including mechanics, radiology, and algebra. HCI became one the original cognitive science domains.
The initial vision of HCI as applied science was to bring cognitive science methods and theories to bear on software development. Most ambitiously, it was hoped that cognitive science theory could provide substantive guidance at very early stages of the software development process. This guidance would come from general principles of perception and motor activity, problem-sol