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Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE Platform, 2nd Edition

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Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE Platform, 2nd Edition


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    • Copyright 2002
    • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/4"
    • Pages: 448
    • Edition: 2nd
    • Book
    • ISBN-10: 0-201-78790-3
    • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-78790-0

    Sun's own J2EE architects and enterprise development consultants have written the definitive guide to developing complete enterprise solutions with Java 2 Enterprise Edition, Version 1.3. This new edition fully reflects Sun's latest Version 1.3 technologies and enhancements, and covers every component of a complete enterprise solution: client-side, middleware, and back-end. The authors begin by introducing the J2EE Version 1.3 platform, reviewing several scenarios for using it to build Internet and intranet applications, and offering detailed introductions to each key J2EE technology. Using both code snippets and a complete, start-to-finish case study, they walk through the construction of Web-based clients based on Java Servlets and Java ServerPages (JSP), middle-tier solutions utilizing Enterprise JavaBeans, and backend connections based on JDBC technology. Coverage also includes: packaging and deploying J2EE applications; automatic and programmatic techniques for managing transactions; and leveraging J2EE's robust security features. For all software developers, architects, and IT managers working with Java 2 Enterprise Edition or providing J2EE-based products.


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    Sample Content

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    Designing and Implementing J2EE Clients

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    Sample Chapter 3

    Table of Contents



    About the Authors.

    1. Introduction.

    Challenges of Enterprise Application Development.

    Programming Productivity.

    Integration with Existing Systems.

    Freedom of Choice.

    Response to Demand.

    Maintaining Security.

    The Platform for Enterprise Solutions.

    J2EE Platform Overview.

    J2EE Platform Benefits.

    J2EE Application Scenarios.

    Multitier Application Scenario.

    Stand-Alone Client Scenario.

    Web-Centric Application Scenario.

    Business-to-Business Scenario.

    How This Book Is Organized.


    References and Resources.

    2. J2EE Platform Technologies.

    Component Technologies.

    Types of J2EE Clients.

    Web Components.

    Enterprise JavaBeans Components.

    Components, Containers, and Services.

    Platform Roles.

    J2EE Product Provider.

    Application Component Provider.

    Application Assembler.


    System Administrator.

    Tool Provider.

    Platform Services.

    Naming Services.

    Deployment Services.

    Transaction Services.

    Security Services.

    Service Technologies.


    Java Transaction API and Service.

    Java Naming and Directory Interface.

    J2EE Connector Architecture.

    Java API for XML Processing Technology.

    Communication Technologies.

    Internet Protocols.

    Remote Method Invocation Protocols.

    Object Management Group Protocols.

    Messaging Technologies.

    Data Formats.


    References and Resources.

    3. The Client Tier.

    Client Considerations.

    Network Considerations.

    Security Considerations.

    Platform Considerations.

    General Design Issues and Guidelines.

    Design Issues and Guidelines for Browser Clients.

    Presenting the User Interface.

    Validating User Inputs.

    Communicating with the Server.

    Managing Conversational State.

    Design Issues and Guidelines for Java Clients.

    Presenting the User Interface.

    Validating User Inputs.

    Communicating with the Server.

    Managing Conversational State.


    References and Resources.

    4. The Web Tier.

    The Purpose of the Web Tier.

    Web-Tier Technologies.

    Traditional Web-Tier Technologies.

    Web-Tier Technologies in the J2EE Platform.

    The Web Container.

    Java Servlets.

    JavaServer Pages (JSP) Technology.

    Web-Tier Technology Guidelines.

    Web-Tier Application Structure.

    Web-Tier Application Framework Design.

    Structuring the Web Tier.

    Web-Tier MVC Controller Design.

    Web-Tier MVC View Design.

    Web-Tier MVC Model Design.

    Web Application Frameworks.

    Separating Business Logic from Presentation.

    Web-Tier State.

    Distributable Web Applications.


    References and Resources.

    5. The Enterprise JavaBeans Tier.

    Business Logic and Business Objects.

    Common Requirements of Business Objects.

    Enterprise Beans as J2EE Business Objects.

    Enterprise Beans and EJB Containers.

    Remote and Local Client Views.

    Guidelines for Using Local or Remote Client Views.

    Entity Beans and Local Client Views.

    Entity Beans.

    Guidelines for Using Entity Beans.

    Entity Bean Persistence.

    When to Use Bean-Managed Persistence.

    Session Beans.

    Stateful Session Beans.

    Stateless Session Beans.

    Message-Driven Beans.

    Uses of Message-Driven Beans.

    Example: Invoice Message-Driven Bean.

    Design Guidelines.

    Remote versus Local Client Access for Entity Beans.

    Session Beans as a Facade to Entity Beans.

    Fine-Grained versus Coarse-Grained Object Access.

    Master-Detail Modeling Using Enterprise Beans.

    Data Access Objects.

    Implementing an Entity Bean without a Create Method.

    Representing References to Entity Beans.

    Portability Guidelines.

    Typecast Remote References.

    Mark Non-Serializable Fields Transient.

    Bean-Managed Persistence and Portability.


    References and Resources.

    6. Integrating with the Enterprise Information System Tier.

    Integration Scenarios.

    An Internet E-Store Application.

    An Intranet Human Resources Application.

    A Distributed Purchasing Application.

    An Order Fulfillment Application.

    J2EE Integration Technologies.

    J2EE Connector Architecture.

    Java Message Service API.

    JDBC and RDBMS Access.

    Application Integration Design Approaches.

    Synchronous Integration.

    Asynchronous Integration.

    Comparing Approaches.

    Data Integration.

    Developing an Integration Layer.

    Programming Access to Data and Functions.

    Using Tools for EIS Integration.

    Developing EIS Access Objects.

    Guidelines for Connection Management.

    Security Guidelines.


    References and Resources.

    7. Packaging and Deployment.

    Packaging Components.

    Roles and Tasks.

    Application Component Provider Tasks.

    Application Assembler Tasks.

    Deployer Tasks.

    Packaging J2EE Applications.

    EJB Modules.

    EJB Module Packaging Guidelines.

    Web Modules.

    Packaging Components into Web Modules.

    Application Client Modules.

    Resource Adapter Modules.

    Deployment Descriptors.

    J2EE Naming Environment.

    Specifying Deployment Descriptor Elements.

    Naming Convention Recommendations.

    Deployment Tools.

    Deployment Tool Actions.

    Deployment Tool Requirements.


    References and Resources.

    8. Transaction Management.

    Transactional Concepts.

    ACID Transaction Properties.

    Transaction Participants.

    Transaction Demarcation.

    Distributed Transactions.

    Two-Phase Commit Protocol.

    J2EE Platform Transactions.

    Accessing Multiple Resources within a Transaction.

    Transactions across Servers.

    J2EE Transaction Technologies.

    Client Tier Transactions.

    Web Tier Transaction Guidelines.

    Enterprise JavaBeans Tier Transactions.

    Bean-Managed Transaction Demarcation.

    Container-Managed Transaction Demarcation.

    Transaction Attributes.

    Enterprise JavaBeans Tier Transaction Guidelines.

    EIS Tier Transactions.

    JTA Transactions.

    Resource Manager Local Transactions.

    EIS Tier Transaction Guidelines.

    Compensating Transactions.

    Isolation Level.

    Performance with Multiple Resource Managers.

    J2EE Resource Manager Types.

    JDBC Databases.

    JMS Providers.

    J2EE Connector Architecture.


    References and Resources.

    9. Security.

    Security Threats and Mechanisms.


    Protection Domains.

    Authentication Mechanisms.

    Authentication Call Patterns.

    Exposing Authentication Boundaries with References.


    Declarative Authorization.

    Programmatic Authorization.

    Declarative versus Programmatic Authorization.


    Affects of Identity Selection.

    Encapsulation for Access Control.

    Controlling Access to J2EE Resources.


    Protecting Messages.

    Integrity Mechanisms.

    Confidentiality Mechanisms.

    Identifying Sensitive Components.

    Ensuring Confidentiality of Web Resources.



    References and Resources.

    10. J2EE Internationalization and Localization.

    Internationalization Concepts and Terminology.

    Internationalization, Localization, and Locale.

    Character Sets.


    Using J2SE Internationalization APIs in J2EE Applications.

    Resource Bundles.

    Message Formatting.

    Date Formatting.


    Web Tier Internationalization.

    Tracking Locales and Encodings.

    Presentation Component Design.

    Internationalizing and Localizing JSP Pages.

    EIS Tier Internationalization.

    Persistent Localized Data.

    Internationalizing Database Schema.

    Internationalized Application Design.

    Internationalizing Applications with XML.

    Generating Localized Dynamic Content with XSLT.

    Communicating Locale within an Application.

    Communicating Locale among Applications.

    Localizing Error and Logging Messages.

    Client Messages and Application Exceptions.

    System Exceptions and Message Logging.


    References and Resources.

    11. Architecture of the Sample Application.

    J2EE Architecture Approaches.

    Model-View-Controller Architecture.

    J2EE Design Patterns.

    Sample Application Overview.

    Designing the Sample Application.

    Choosing Application Tiers.

    Choosing Local or Distributed Architecture.

    Architecture of the Sample Application.

    Application Web Site Architecture.

    Fulfillment Center Architecture.


    References and Resources.



    Index. 0201787903T03252002


    This book, now in its second edition, describes standard approaches to designing multitier enterprise applications with the Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition. This book, and the accompanying Java Pet Store sample application, are part of the successful Java BluePrints program created by Sun Microsystems with the introduction of the J2EE platform. This program has been used by thousands of application architects, developers, and students to attain better understanding of the programming model inherent in the J2EE platform.

    This book and the Java BluePrints program don't provide information on how to use individual Java technologies to write applications--that's the role of the companion Java Tutorial program. Instead, Java BluePrints focuses on guidelines for application architecture, such as distributing J2EE application functionality across tiers and choosing among design options within each tier. This book assumes that the reader already has basic knowledge of the J2EE platform. We recommend that readers without this knowledge familiarize themselves with the J2EE Tutorial either before or while reading this volume. See "Related Information" later in the Preface for details.

    This book describes the architecture and design principles employed in building J2EE applications, and explores of the specific approach adopted by the sample application. Striking a balance between specific details and broad principles is never easy. The hope behind this effort is that the principles presented here are both consistent with and a useful complement to the implementation provided by the sample applications documented in this book.

    This book is intended primarily for system architects and enterprise application developers engaged in or considering a transition to the J2EE platform. It is also useful for product vendors interested in developing applications consistent with the J2EE standard.

    Obtaining the Sample Application

    You can download the Java Pet Store sample application, version 1.3, which is described in this book, from:


    The sample application requires a J2EE v1.3-compliant platform on which to run. You can download J2EE SDK™, which is a freely available implementation of that platform, from:

    http://java.sun.com/j2ee/download.htmlRelated Information

    Pointers to J2EE documentation can be found at:


    For information on how to use the J2EE SDK to construct multitier enterprise applications, refer to The J2EE Tutorial, available at:


    The J2EE technologies cited in this book are described in their specifications:Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition Specification, Version 1.3 (J2EE specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/j2ee/download.html

    Java™ 2 Platform, Standard Edition Specification, Version 1.3 (J2SE specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/

    Java™ Servlet Specification, Version 2.3 (Servlet specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/

    JavaServer Pages™ Specification, Version 1.2 (JSP specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/

    Enterprise JavaBeans™ Specification, Version 2.0 (EJB specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/ejb/

    Java™ API for XML Processing Specification, Version 1.1 (JAXP specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/xml/jaxp/

    J2EE™ Connector Architecture Specification, Version 1.0 (Connector specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/j2ee/connector/

    JDBC™ API Specification, Version 2.0 (JDBC specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/

    JDBC™ Standard Extension API Specification, Version 2.0 (JDBC extension specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/

    Java™ Transaction API Specification, Version 1.0.1 (JTA specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jta/

    Java Naming and Directory Interface™ Specification, Version 1.2 (JNDI specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/

    Java IDL. Available at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/guide/idl/

    RMI over IIOP. Available at http://java.sun.com/products/rmi-iiop/

    Java™ Message Service Specification, Version 1.0.2 (JMS specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jms/

    Java™ Authentication and Authorization Service Specification, Version 1.0 (JAAS specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jaas/

    JavaMail™ API Specification, Version 1.2 (JavaMail specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/javamail/

    JavaBeans™ Activation Framework Specification, Version 1.0.1 (JAF specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/javabeans/glasgow/jaf.html

    Typographic Conventions

    Table 0.1 describes the typographic conventions used in this book.

    Table 0.1 Typographic Conventions

    Typeface or Symbol Meaning Example
    AaBbCc123 The names of commands, files, and directories; interface, class, method, and deployment descriptor element names; programming language keywords Edit the file Main.jsp. How to retrieve a UserTransaction object. Specify the resource-ref element.
    AaBbCc123 Variable name The files are named XYZfile.
    AaBbCc123 Book titles, new words or terms, or words to be emphasized Read Chapter 6 in User's Guide. These are called class options. You must be root to do this.



    Aaccess objects 189
        data access objects 190
           aggregate objects 191
        records 192
    ACID properties 252
    applet clients 61
    applets 26
        accessing a UserTransaction 38
        transactions 260
    application assembler tasks 206
    application clients 19, 26, 60
        accessing a UserTransaction 38
        deployment 243
        transactions 260
    application scenarios 14
        business-to-business 20
        multitier 16
        stand-alone client 18
        Web-centric 19
    archive files
        EAR 207
        EJB JAR 210
        JAR 49
        WAR 214, 222
    ASCII 313
    asynchronous messaging 154, 180-181, 183-185
        point-to-point messaging 183
        publish-subscribe messaging 183
    auditing 307
    authentication 40, 280
        basic 41, 285
        call patterns 292
        changing identity 287
        client certificate 41
        configuration 285
        context 280
           delegating 281
        digest 41, 285
        EIS resource 291
           application-managed 291
           container-managed 291
        EJB tier 287
        form-based 41, 285
           configuration 238
        lazy 284
        mechanisms 284
        mutual 280, 285
        role of references 293
        scenarios 282
        user 53
    authenticators 280
    authorization 40-41, 293
        consistency across components 296
        declarative versus programmatic 296
        enterprise information systems 199
        example 302
        programmatic 295
    auto-registration 293Bbasic authentication
        See authentication, basic
    bean-managed persistence 145
        find methods 140
        portability 149
        when to use 149
    bean-managed transaction demarcation
        message-driven beans 155
    browsers 54
        download time 57
        input 56
        JavaScript validation 57
        server communication 58
        user interface 55
    business delegate 351
    business logic 130
    business methods
        implementation 139
        in component interface 139
    business objects 130
        behavior 131
        controlling access to 133
        high availability 133
        implemented by enterprise beans 135
        maintaining state 132
        modeling as entity beans 143-144
        operating on shared data 132
        participation in transactions 132
        remote accessibility 133
        requirements of 131-134
        reusability 134
        servicing multiple clients 133
        structural attributes 131Ccaller principal 296
        of container-managed relationships 146
        See Common Client Interface
    character sets 313
        8859 series 314
        ASCII 313
        encoding 314
        Unicode 314
    class files 49
    client certificate authentication
        See authentication, client certificate
    client tier 7
    client view 137
        component interface 137
        home interface 137
        local view 137
        remote view 137
        See also Java clients
        applets 61
        applications 60
        browsers 54
           download time 57
           input 56
           JavaScript validation 57
           server communication 58
           user interface 55
        conversational state 59, 69
        cookie 59-60
        data download 69
        design guidelines 54
        in distributed application 52
        input validation logic 63
        interfaces 51
        MIDlets 61
        network connections 52
           security 52
        platform considerations 53
        presentation logic 61
        security 52
        state 60
           within URL 59
        types 51, 60
        user authentication 53
        user interface 62
    code generation wizards 165
    collation 320
    command beans
        access objects
           command beans 189
    Common Client Interface 178
        data integration 186
    Common Secure Interoperability (CSIv2) protocol 288
    component interface 137, 139
    components 25
        applets 26
        application clients 26
        designing presentation 325
        EJB 28
        enterprise beans 28, 135
        packaging 201
        portability 10
        presentation 110
        rich clients 26
        Web 27
        wireless clients 27
    composite view 350
    concurrency 272
    concurrent access 143
    confidentiality mechanisms 305
    connection factory references 193
        data source 197
        elements of 194
        mail session 232
        res-auth 194
        res-ref-name 194
    connection pooling 179, 193
        closing 194
        getConnection 194
        guidelines for managing 193-195
        sharing 195
           res-sharing-scope 195
    Connector architecture 43
    container-managed persistence 145
        benefits 149
        find methods 140
        select methods 140
    container-managed relationships 142, 146
        fields 146
        manipulation of 146
    containers 26
           APIs 31
        application client 26
           APIs 31
        EJB 30
           APIs 31
        JSP 28
        platform configuration 7
        servlet 28
        Web 28
           APIs 31
    conversational state 151
        managing with session beans 157
    cookie 59-60, 122
    create methods 140
        omitting from entity bean 164
    credentials 282DDAO 190
        coarse-grained access 141
        fine-grained access 142
        in XML format 176
        independence 149
        persistent localized 332
        procedural view of 153
        records 192


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