Over the last few years, Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) technology has emerged and matured as a standard platform for building enterprise applications. While the platform has matured into a solid offering for developing and deploying enterprise applications, it does offer its challenges. As developers, often we confuse learning the technology with learning to design with the technology. In this book, senior architects from the Sun Java Center, Sun's Java consulting organization share with the reader their cumulative design experience with and expertise on J2EE technology.
The primary focus of the book is on patterns, best practices, design strategies, and proven solutions using the key J2EE technologies including JavaServer Pages (JSP), Servlets, Enterprise Java Beans (EJB), and Java Message Service (J.M.S) API. Other ancillary technologies like JDBC and JNDI are also discussed as relevant to their usage in these patterns. The J2EE Patterns catalog with 16 patterns and numerous strategies is presented to document and promote best practices for these technologies.
In addition to the patterns and strategies, the book offers the following:
Core J2EE Patterns delivers:
Click here for a sample chapter for this book: 0130648841.pdf
I. PATTERNS AND J2EE.1. Introduction.
What Is J2EE? What Are Patterns? Historical References. Defining a Pattern. Categorizing Patterns. J2EE Pattern Catalog. Continuous Evolution. How to Use the J2EE Pattern Catalog. Benefits of Using Patterns. Patterns, Frameworks, and Reuse. Summary.2. J2EE Platform Overview.
A Brief Perspective. Application Servers-The New Breed. Convergence of Java Technologies. The Rise of the J2EE Platform. J2EE Value Proposition. J2EE Platform. J2EE Architecture. Java 2 Standard Edition. J2EE Application Components and Containers. Standard Services. J2EE Platform Roles. Deployment Descriptors. J2EE Patterns and J2EE Platform. Summary.
II. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS, BAD PRACTICES, AND REFACTORINGS.3. Presentation Tier Design Considerations and Bad Practices.
Presentation Tier Design Considerations. Session Management. Controlling Client Access. Validation. Helper Properties-Integrity and Consistency. Presentation Tier Bad Practices. Control Code in Multiple Views. Exposing Presentation-Tier Data Structures to Business Tier. Exposing Presentation-Tier Data Structures to Domain Objects. Allowing Duplicate Form Submissions. Exposing Sensitive Resources to Direct Client Access. Assuming <jsp:setProperty> Will Reset Bean Properties. Creating Fat Controllers.4. Business Tier Design Considerations and Bad Practices.
Business Tier Design Considerations. Using Session Beans. Using Entity Beans. Caching Enterprise Bean Remote References and Handles. Business and Integration Tiers Bad Practices. Mapping Object Model Directly to Entity Bean Model. Mapping Relational Model Directly to Entity Bean Model. Mapping Each Use Case to a Session Bean. Exposing All Enterprise Bean Attributes via Getter/Setter Methods. Embedding Service Lookup in Clients. Using Entity Bean as Read-Only Object. Using Entity Beans as Fine-Grained Objects. Storing Entire Entity Bean-Dependent Object Graph. Exposing EJB-related Exceptions to Non-EJB Clients. Using Entity Bean Finder Methods to Return a Large Results Set. Client Aggregates Data from Business Components. Using Enterprise Beans for Long-Lived Transactions. Stateless Session Bean Reconstructs Conversational State for Each Invocation.5. J2EE Refactorings.
Presentation Tier Refactorings. Introduce a Controller. Introduce Synchronizer Token. Localize Disparate Logic. Hide Presentation Tier-Specific Details From the Business Tier. Remove Conversions from View. Hide Resource From a Client. Business and Integration Tier Refactorings. Wrap Entities With Session. Introduce Business Delegate. Merge Session Beans. Eliminate Inter-Entity Bean Communication. Move Business Logic to Session. General Refactorings. Separate Data Access Code. Refactor Architecture by Tiers. Use A Connection Pool.
III. J2EE PATTERN CATALOG.6. J2EE Patterns Overview.
What Is a Pattern? Identifying a Pattern. The Tiered Approach. J2EE Patterns. Presentation Tier Patterns. Business Tier Patterns. Integration Tier Patterns. Guide to the Catalog. Terminology. Use of UML. Pattern Template. J2EE Pattern Relationships. Relationship to Known Patterns. Patterns Roadmap. Summary.7. Presentation Tier Patterns.
Intercepting Filter. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Related Patterns. Front Controller. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Related Patterns. View Helper. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Related Patterns. Composite View. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Service to Worker. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Dispatcher View. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns.8. Business Tier Patterns.
Business Delegate. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Value Object. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Session Facade. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Composite Entity. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Value Object Assembler. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Value List Handler. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Service Locator. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns.9. Integration Tier Patterns.
Data Access Object. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. Service Activator. Context. Problem. Forces. Solution. Consequences. Sample Code. Related Patterns. EPILOGUE J2EE Patterns Applied. PSA Overview. Use Case Model. Use Cases, Patterns, and Pattern Frameworks. Create Project Use Case. Pattern Identification. Pattern Realization. Reserve Resource Use Case. Pattern Identification. Pattern Realization. Find Available Resources Use Case. Pattern Identification. Pattern Realization. Bibliography. Apache Software License.Index.
This book is about patterns for the Java 2 platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE). These J2EE patterns provide solutions for problems typically encountered by designers of software applications for the J2EE platform. All the patterns documented in the catalog have been discovered in the field, where they have been used to create successful J2EE applications for our customers.
This book describes proven solutions for the J2EE platform with a particular emphasis on such key J2EE technologies as: Java Server Pages (JSP), Servlets, Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) components, Java Message Service (JMS), JDBC, and Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). We offer solutions for recurring problems for the J2EE platform through the J2EE pattern catalog and J2EE refactorings. You can apply these ideas when developing new systems or when improving the design of existing systems. The patterns in this book will help you quickly gain the proficiency and skills to build robust, efficient enterprise applications.
Today, as in the past, many of us naively assume that learning a technology is synonymous with learning to design with the technology. Certainly learning the technology is an important part to being successful in designing with the technology. Many existing Java books are excellent at explaining technology details, such as API specifics and so forth, but at the same time they give no insight on applying the technology. Learning to design comes from experience and from sharing knowledge on best practices and bad practices.
The experiences we have conveyed in this book are derived from the work we have done in the field. We are part of Sun Microsystems, Inc.'s Sun Java Center (SJC) consulting organization. In our work, we often encounter situations where, because technology is moving so quickly, designers and developers are still struggling to understand the technology, let alone how to design with the technology.
It is not good enough to tell designers and developers to write good code, nor is it sufficient to suggest using Servlets and JSP for developing the presentation tier and EJB components for developing the business tier.
So, given this scenario, where does an aspiring J2EE architect learn not only what to do, but what not to do? What are the best practices? What are the bad practices? How do you go from problem to design to implementation?
Since its inception, SJC architects have been working with clients all over the world to successfully design, architect, build, and deploy various types of systems based on Java and J2EE. The SJC is a rapidly growing consulting organization constantly adding new hires to its ranks of experienced architects.
Recognizing the need to capture and share proven designs and architectures, we started to document our work on the J2EE platform in the form of patterns in 1999. Although we looked in the existing literature, we could not find a catalog of patterns that dealt specifically with the J2EE platform. We found many books dealing with one or more of the J2EE technologies, and these books do an excellent job of explaining the technology and unraveling the nuances of the specifications. Some books offered extra help by providing some design considerations.
Since we first publicly presented our ideas on J2EE patterns at the JavaOne Conference in June 2000, we have received an overwhelming response from architects and developers. While some individuals expressed great interest in learning more about the patterns, others confirmed that they had applied the patterns, but had never named or documented them. This interest in patterns for the J2EE platform further motivated us to continue our work.
Thus, we put together the J2EE Pattern Catalog., which was initially made available to the entire J2EE community in beta form via the Java Developer Connection in March, 2001. Based largely on community feedback, the beta documentation evolved into the release you see in this book.
We hope these patterns, best practices, strategies, bad practices, and refactorings for the J2EE platform, provide the same benefits to you as they do for us.
This book is about:
This book is not about:
This book is for all J2EE enthusiasts, programmers, architects, developers, and technical managers. In short, anyone who is remotely interested in designing, architecting, and developing applications for the J2EE platform.
We have attempted to distinguish this book as a training guide for J2EE architects and designers. We all recognize the importance of good designs and well-architected projects, and that we need good architects to get there.
The use of well-documented patterns, best practices, and bad practices to share and transfer knowledge and experience can prove invaluable for teams with varied experience levels, and we hope that this book answers some of these needs.
This book is organized into three parts.
Part 1"Patterns and J2EE," consists of Chapter 1 and Chapter 2.
Chapter 1: "Introduction" on page 4 is a brief discussion on various topics, including patterns, J2EE platform, defining a pattern, and pattern categorization. It ends by introducing the J2EE patterns catalog.
Chapter 2: "J2EE Platform Overview" on page 16 provides a high level overview of the J2EE platform for those readers unfamiliar with J2EE, or who wish to refresh their knowledge of the J2EE platform.
Part 2"Design Considerations, Bad Practices, and Refactorings" deals with design considerations for JSP, Servlets, and enterprise beans. This part also includes bad practices and refactorings for the J2EE platform. This part is comprised of Chapter 3, 4, and 5.
Chapter 3: "Presentation Tier Design Considerations and Bad Practices" on page 34 and Chapter 4: "Business Tier Design Considerations and Bad Practices" on page 54 discuss the design considerations and bad practices for the presentation tier and business/integration tiers respectively. The design considerations are issues that a J2EE developer/designer/architect needs to consider while working with the J2EE platform. The topics presented in these chapters point the reader to other sources (such as official specifications and well written books on these topics) for more detailed information on these issues.
Chapter 5: "J2EE Refactorings" on page 72 includes some of the refactorings we have experienced in our work in the field that has enabled us to move our design from a less optimal solution to a better solution. The refactorings provide another way to think about the material in the rest of the book, providing what we believe to be valuable companion material to the pattern catalog. This chapter shows how we have been influenced by Martin Fowler and his book "Refactoring" Fowler. For those readers who are familiar with the Refactoring book, the format of this chapter will be very familiar. However, the content of this chapter is entirely in the context of J2EE technologies, whereas Martin Fowler addresses refactoring at a different level.
Part 3"J2EE Pattern Catalog" presents the J2EE pattern catalog. The catalog contains the fifteen patterns that form the core of this book. This part is comprised of Chapter 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Chapter 6: "J2EE Patterns Overview" on page 124 provides an overview of the J2EE pattern catalog. This chapter begins with a high level discussion of the pattern ideas and explains the way the patterns are categorized into tiers. It also explains the J2EE pattern template, which is used to present all patterns in this book. The chapter discusses all the J2EE patterns and uses a diagram to show their inter-relationships. It also provides what we have termed a roadmap to the pattern catalog. This roadmap presents common J2EE design and architecture-related questions with references to patterns or refactorings that provide solutions to these questions. Understanding the pattern relationships and the roadmap is key to using these patterns.
Chapter 7: "Presentation Tier Patterns" on page 150 presents six patterns that pertain to using Servlets, JSP, JavaBeans, and custom tags to design web-based applications for the J2EE platform. The patterns describe numerous implementation strategies, and address common problems such as request handling, application partitioning, and generating composite displays.
Chapter 8: "Business Tier Patterns" on page 246 presents seven patterns that pertain to using EJB technology to design business components for the J2EE platform. The patterns in this chapter provide the best practices for using the EJB and JMS technologies. Where relevant, these patterns include discussion on other technologies, such as JNDI and JDBC.
Chapter 9: "Integration Tier Patterns" on page 388 presents two patterns that pertain to integrating J2EE applications with the resource tier and external systems. The patterns deal with using JDBC and JMS to enable integration between business tier and resource tier components.
Epilogue: "J2EE Patterns Applied" on page 422 discusses realizing sample use cases with the patterns. This chapter discusses and demonstrates how patterns are combined and work together. This chapter reinforces the idea that patterns exist in a community, and that each pattern supports, and is supported by, other patterns.
The official companion website where we will provide updates and other material is
The J2EE Patterns interest group,
firstname.lastname@example.org is available for public subscription and participation. To subscribe to the interest group and review the discussion archives, please visit: