Home > Store

Capacity Planning for Internet Services

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Capacity Planning for Internet Services


  • This product currently is not for sale.
Not for Sale


  • Copyright 2001
  • Dimensions: K
  • Pages: 256
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-089402-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-089402-1

Capacity planning is a well known discipline, particularly for sites that have a mainframe oriented background. The explosive growth of Internet sites and E-commerce has presented new challenges in managing performance and capacity. In many cases, time constraints and business demands can prevent normal capacity planning techniques from being applied. Classic datacenter capacity planning methods can be adjusted and successfully applied to this new Internet-centric computing environment.

This BluePrint charts a course through the available techniques and tools, examines timescales and return on investment for different methodologies and provides a framework for decomposing big problems into solvable subproblems.

Sample Content

Table of Contents



1. Introduction.

2. Theoretical Principles.

Performance Management. Layers of Service Architecture. Phases of Performance Management. Baselining. Load Planning. Capacity Planning. Resource Management. Service Level Agreements. Caveats and Problems with Service Level Agreements. Production Environment Engineering. Overview. IT Frameworks. The ISO FCAPS IT Framework. IT Extended Frameworks. FCAPS IT Extended Framework. The IT Service Model. Applying ITIL. The SunReady? Approach. Monitoring and Management. Measurement Principles. Conclusion.

3. Suggested Processes.

Service Level Management. Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Identifying a Service. The Service Definition. Problem Reporting and Escalation. Reporting and Review. Costs, Chargebacks, and Consequences. Arbitration and Conflict Resolution. Reassessment and Updating. Inventorying the Enterprise. Baselining Business Services. Capacity Estimation and Consolidation Processes. Quantifying Capacity. Consolidating Workloads. Resource Management. The Never-Ending Cycle. Summary.

4. Scenario Planning.

A Recipe for Successful Scenario Planning. Modelling Capacity and Load. Modelling Load. Modelling Capacity. Tweaking the Model. Predicting Tomorrow. Fitting the Model to the Data by Tweaking. Summary.

5. Capacity Estimation.

Overview. System Measurement Frames. Sun Constant Performance Metric (SCPM) Value Capacity Planning. Amdahl's Law. Geometric Scalability. Measuring Utilization. SCPM Measurement. Measuring Disk Storage Capacity. SCPM Load Planning. Workload Characterization. Capacity Planning for Complex Disk Subsystems. Capacity Measurements for Single Disks. Measurements on a Single Disk. Cached Disk Subsystem Optimizations. Cached Disk Subsystems. Host-Based Write Cache Model Interconnect Parameters. Estimating Capacity for Complex Disk Subsystems. Single Disks. Mirrored Disks. Concatenated and Fat Stripe Disks. Striped Disk Accesses. RAID5 for Small Requests. RAID5 for Large Requests. Cached RAID5. Cached Stripe. Capacity Model Measurements. Disk and Controller Capacity. Performance Factor P. Cache Performance Impact Factors. Service Time and Cache Hit Rate. Caveats. Summary.

6. Observability.

Operations Viewpoint. Management Viewpoint. Engineering Viewpoint. Example Scenarios. Operations Viewpoint Implementation. Implementing with Sun Management Center. Alert Monitoring with SunMC. Handling Alarms in SunMC. Key Performance Indicator Plots. Operations Viewpoint Implementations Summary. Management Viewpoint Implementation. Weekly Summary. Scenario Planning. Weekly Problem Summary. External Monitoring Summary. Engineering Viewpoint Implementation. SE Orcollator Logs. SAS Data Import and Analysis. Summary.

7. Tools Overview and Evaluations.

Tools and Products for Performance Management. Server Consolidation. Domains and Dynamic Reconfiguration. Solaris Resource Manager. Solaris Bandwidth Manager. Load Sharing Facility and Codeine. Sun Management Center (SunMC). SunMC Hardware Diagnostic Suite 1.0. Sun Configuration & Service Tracker. BMC Patrol and Best/1. Foglight Software (RAPS). SAS IT Service Vision (CPE). Hyperformix/SES Workbench and Strategizer. Aurora Software SarCheck. Capacity Planning with TeamQuest Model. Creating the Model. Summary.

A. Sun Constant Performance Metrics.

B. References.





The Sun BluePrints series provides best practices information in book form for the users of Sun products. The series looks at the combination of techniques and methodologies of assembling Sun and third-party products that are needed to solve real-world problems and business needs.

Capacity Planning for Internet Services provides detailed yet concise recipes for performing capacity planning tasks for high-growth-rate Internet services. It assumes that there is very little time or expertise available to perform these tasks.

Who Should Use This Book

This Sun BluePrints book is primarily intended for Capacity Planners, Operations Managers, Systems and Database Administrators, Systems Integrators, and Systems Engineers. It can be used as a first introduction to the subject of capacity planning and performance management in an Internet-oriented environment. The techniques described are quite generic, and the only areas of this book that are Sun specific relate to understanding some of the measurements available on the Sun platform. It does not assume any background in capacity planning and avoids the detailed mathematics of queueing theory as much as possible. However, many references are provided for advanced reading.

How This Book Is Organized

The two authors of this book bring together a wide variety of experiences to provide a practical but innovative guide to the problems of capacity planning in high-growth-rate Internet environments. Adrian Cockcroft is a Distinguished Systems Engineer at Sun and is well-known for his expertise and many presentations on performance tuning and tools. Adrian initiated this writing project, structured and scoped the book, and is primarily responsible for the Scenario Planning and Observability chapters. Bill Walker is one of the most senior members of Sun's Professional ServicesSM (SunPSSM) organization. He has worked on many large Internet sites, currently designs processes and methodologies for the SunPS team to implement, and regularly presents training classes on performance tuning. Bill is primarily responsible for the Capacity Estimation, Suggested Processes, and Tools Overview and Evaluations chapters.

  • Chapter 1, "Introduction," is an overview of the reasons why this Sun BluePrints series was written and a description of the problems it tries to address.
  • Chapter 2, "Theoretical Principles," explains some of the underlying principles involved in managing high growth rates and in making trade-offs between conflicting requirements.
  • Chapter 3, "Suggested Processes," describes how to implement processes and procedures for establishing service level agreements and performing capacity planning.
  • Chapter 4, "Scenario Planning," introduces a simple way to identify your primary bottleneck, perform capacity estimation, define future scenarios, and perform spreadsheet-based capacity planning.
  • Chapter 5, "Capacity Estimation," describes how to examine CPU, memory, disks, and networks to determine the capacity available and the utilization of that capacity. A closer examination of the problems in obtaining capacity and utilization for bottleneck estimation is also presented.
  • Chapter 6, "Observability," looks at the reporting requirements for a site in terms of the needs of operations, engineering, and senior management.
  • Chapter 7, "Tools Overview and Evaluations" looks at the many tools available for capacity planning, and contains a detailed look at the TeamQuest tools that the SunPS team uses to perform capacity planning studies.
  • Appendix A, "Sun Constant Performance Metrics," provides Sun Constant Performance Metrics (SCPM) estimation tables for Sun servers.
  • Appendix B, "References," provides a list of publications and Web sites for finding out about more advanced techniques, and contacting tool vendors.
Related Books

These books provide relevant background material; for full details and more suggestions, see the references in Appendix B.

  • The Sun BluePrints OnLine Web site:
  • The Practical Performance Analyst by Dr. Neil Gunther
  • Configuration and Capacity Planning for Sun Servers by Brian Wong
  • Sun Performance and Tuning - Java and the Internet by Adrian Cockcroft and Richard Pettit
  • Resource Management, a Sun BluePrints book by Richard McDougall, Adrian Cockcroft, Evert Hoogendoorn, Tom Bialaski, and Enrique Vargas
  • Solaris PC Netlink Performance, Sizing, and Deployment, a Sun BluePrints book by Don DeVitt
  • Backup and Restore Practices for Sun Enterprise Servers, a Sun BluePrints book by Stan Stringfellow and Miroslav Klivansky, with Michael Barto

For a list of Sun documents and how to order them, see the catalog section of the SunExpress Internet site at http://www.sun.com/sunexpress

How to Access Sun Documentation Online

The docs.sun.com Web site enables you to access Sun technical documentation online. You can browse the docs.sun.com archive or search for a specific book title or subject. The URL is http://docs.sun.com/


Submit Errata

More Information

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020