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Capacity Planning for Internet Services

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Capacity Planning for Internet Services


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  • Copyright 2001
  • Dimensions: K
  • Pages: 256
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-089402-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-089402-1

Capacity planning is a well known discipline, particularly for sites that have a mainframe oriented background. The explosive growth of Internet sites and E-commerce has presented new challenges in managing performance and capacity. In many cases, time constraints and business demands can prevent normal capacity planning techniques from being applied. Classic datacenter capacity planning methods can be adjusted and successfully applied to this new Internet-centric computing environment.

This BluePrint charts a course through the available techniques and tools, examines timescales and return on investment for different methodologies and provides a framework for decomposing big problems into solvable subproblems.

Sample Content

Table of Contents



1. Introduction.

2. Theoretical Principles.

Performance Management. Layers of Service Architecture. Phases of Performance Management. Baselining. Load Planning. Capacity Planning. Resource Management. Service Level Agreements. Caveats and Problems with Service Level Agreements. Production Environment Engineering. Overview. IT Frameworks. The ISO FCAPS IT Framework. IT Extended Frameworks. FCAPS IT Extended Framework. The IT Service Model. Applying ITIL. The SunReady? Approach. Monitoring and Management. Measurement Principles. Conclusion.

3. Suggested Processes.

Service Level Management. Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Identifying a Service. The Service Definition. Problem Reporting and Escalation. Reporting and Review. Costs, Chargebacks, and Consequences. Arbitration and Conflict Resolution. Reassessment and Updating. Inventorying the Enterprise. Baselining Business Services. Capacity Estimation and Consolidation Processes. Quantifying Capacity. Consolidating Workloads. Resource Management. The Never-Ending Cycle. Summary.

4. Scenario Planning.

A Recipe for Successful Scenario Planning. Modelling Capacity and Load. Modelling Load. Modelling Capacity. Tweaking the Model. Predicting Tomorrow. Fitting the Model to the Data by Tweaking. Summary.

5. Capacity Estimation.

Overview. System Measurement Frames. Sun Constant Performance Metric (SCPM) Value Capacity Planning. Amdahl's Law. Geometric Scalability. Measuring Utilization. SCPM Measurement. Measuring Disk Storage Capacity. SCPM Load Planning. Workload Characterization. Capacity Planning for Complex Disk Subsystems. Capacity Measurements for Single Disks. Measurements on a Single Disk. Cached Disk Subsystem Optimizations. Cached Disk Subsystems. Host-Based Write Cache Model Interconnect Parameters. Estimating Capacity for Complex Disk Subsystems. Single Disks. Mirrored Disks. Concatenated and Fat Stripe Disks. Striped Disk Accesses. RAID5 for Small Requests. RAID5 for Large Requests. Cached RAID5. Cached Stripe. Capacity Model Measurements. Disk and Controller Capacity. Performance Factor P. Cache Performance Impact Factors. Service Time and Cache Hit Rate. Caveats. Summary.

6. Observability.

Operations Viewpoint. Management Viewpoint. Engineering Viewpoint. Example Scenarios. Operations Viewpoint Implementation. Implementing with Sun Management Center. Alert Monitoring with SunMC. Handling Alarms in SunMC. Key Performance Indicator Plots. Operations Viewpoint Implementations Summary. Management Viewpoint Implementation. Weekly Summary. Scenario Planning. Weekly Problem Summary. External Monitoring Summary. Engineering Viewpoint Implementation. SE Orcollator Logs. SAS Data Import and Analysis. Summary.

7. Tools Overview and Evaluations.

Tools and Products for Performance Management. Server Consolidation. Domains and Dynamic Reconfiguration. Solaris Resource Manager. Solaris Bandwidth Manager. Load Sharing Facility and Codeine. Sun Management Center (SunMC). SunMC Hardware Diagnostic Suite 1.0. Sun Configuration & Service Tracker. BMC Patrol and Best/1. Foglight Software (RAPS). SAS IT Service Vision (CPE). Hyperformix/SES Workbench and Strategizer. Aurora Software SarCheck. Capacity Planning with TeamQuest Model. Creating the Model. Summary.

A. Sun Constant Performance Metrics.

B. References.





The Sun BluePrints series provides best practices information in book form for the users of Sun products. The series looks at the combination of techniques and methodologies of assembling Sun and third-party products that are needed to solve real-world problems and business needs.

Capacity Planning for Internet Services provides detailed yet concise recipes for performing capacity planning tasks for high-growth-rate Internet services. It assumes that there is very little time or expertise available to perform these tasks.

Who Should Use This Book

This Sun BluePrints book is primarily intended for Capacity Planners, Operations Managers, Systems and Database Administrators, Systems Integrators, and Systems Engineers. It can be used as a first introduction to the subject of capacity planning and performance management in an Internet-oriented environment. The techniques described are quite generic, and the only areas of this book that are Sun specific relate to understanding some of the measurements available on the Sun platform. It does not assume any background in capacity planning and avoids the detailed mathematics of queueing theory as much as possible. However, many references are provided for advanced reading.

How This Book Is Organized

The two authors of this book bring together a wide variety of experiences to provide a practical but innovative guide to the problems of capacity planning in high-growth-rate Internet environments. Adrian Cockcroft is a Distinguished Systems Engineer at Sun and is well-known for his expertise and many presentations on performance tuning and tools. Adrian initiated this writing project, structured and scoped the book, and is primarily responsible for the Scenario Planning and Observability chapters. Bill Walker is one of the most senior members of Sun's Professional ServicesSM (SunPSSM) organization. He has worked on many large Internet sites, currently designs processes and methodologies for the SunPS team to implement, and regularly presents training classes on performance tuning. Bill is primarily responsible for the Capacity Estimation, Suggested Processes, and Tools Overview and Evaluations chapters.

  • Chapter 1, "Introduction," is an overview of the reasons why this Sun BluePrints series was written and a description of the problems it tries to address.
  • Chapter 2, "Theoretical Principles," explains some of the underlying principles involved in managing high growth rates and in making trade-offs between conflicting requirements.
  • Chapter 3, "Suggested Processes," describes how to implement processes and procedures for establishing service level agreements and performing capacity planning.
  • Chapter 4, "Scenario Planning," introduces a simple way to identify your primary bottleneck, perform capacity estimation, define future scenarios, and perform spreadsheet-based capacity planning.
  • Chapter 5, "Capacity Estimation," describes how to examine CPU, memory, disks, and networks to determine the capacity available and the utilization of that capacity. A closer examination of the problems in obtaining capacity and utilization for bottleneck estimation is also presented.
  • Chapter 6, "Observability," looks at the reporting requirements for a site in terms of the needs of operations, engineering, and senior management.
  • Chapter 7, "Tools Overview and Evaluations" looks at the many tools available for capacity planning, and contains a detailed look at the TeamQuest tools that the SunPS team uses to perform capacity planning studies.
  • Appendix A, "Sun Constant Performance Metrics," provides Sun Constant Performance Metrics (SCPM) estimation tables for Sun servers.
  • Appendix B, "References," provides a list of publications and Web sites for finding out about more advanced techniques, and contacting tool vendors.
Related Books

These books provide relevant background material; for full details and more suggestions, see the references in Appendix B.

  • The Sun BluePrints OnLine Web site:
  • The Practical Performance Analyst by Dr. Neil Gunther
  • Configuration and Capacity Planning for Sun Servers by Brian Wong
  • Sun Performance and Tuning - Java and the Internet by Adrian Cockcroft and Richard Pettit
  • Resource Management, a Sun BluePrints book by Richard McDougall, Adrian Cockcroft, Evert Hoogendoorn, Tom Bialaski, and Enrique Vargas
  • Solaris PC Netlink Performance, Sizing, and Deployment, a Sun BluePrints book by Don DeVitt
  • Backup and Restore Practices for Sun Enterprise Servers, a Sun BluePrints book by Stan Stringfellow and Miroslav Klivansky, with Michael Barto

For a list of Sun documents and how to order them, see the catalog section of the SunExpress Internet site at http://www.sun.com/sunexpress

How to Access Sun Documentation Online

The docs.sun.com Web site enables you to access Sun technical documentation online. You can browse the docs.sun.com archive or search for a specific book title or subject. The URL is http://docs.sun.com/


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