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Building Imaging Applications with Java™ Technology: Using AWT Imaging, Java 2D™, and Java™ Advanced Imaging (JAI)

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Building Imaging Applications with Java™ Technology: Using AWT Imaging, Java 2D™, and Java™ Advanced Imaging (JAI)


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  • Copyright 2001
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8x9-1/4
  • Pages: 880
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-70074-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-70074-9

With the advent of Java 2D™ and the Java™ Advanced Imaging API (JAI), sophisticated imaging functionality can now be incorporated into Java™ applets and applications. This new capability facilitates the creation of cross-platform, Internet-enabled imaging software.

Written with practicing programmers in mind, Building Imaging Applications with Java™ Technology is a comprehensive, practical how-to guide. This book focuses on the information imaging programmers must know to produce high-quality imaging software with Advanced Window Toolkit (AWT), Java 2D, and JAI.

Building Imaging Applications with Java™ Technology reviews the fundamentals of AWT, the original set of Java imaging APIs. It also presents the more sophisticated imaging capabilities in Java 2D and introduces the powerful functionality of the new JAI APIs. You will learn how to create all types of graphics; how to load, render, and manipulate images; and how to perform image analysis. Numerous detailed examples from the real world of Internet, satellite, and medical imaging illustrate key concepts and techniques.

Specific topics include:
  • Loading images from JAR files
  • Describing shapes and the affine transformation in Java 2D
  • Designing a class library of shapes
  • Designing a component class for interactive drawing
  • Designing a component class for displaying images
  • Printing in Java 2D
  • Implementing pan and zoom
  • Implementing interactive rotate, shear, and flip
  • Manipulating images at the pixel level using the Java 2D API
  • Working with tiles in JAI to render large images
  • Image manipulation in JAI using affine transformation, projections, and warping
  • Image analysis in JAI, including edge detection, statistics, and region of interest computation (ROI)
  • Remote imaging using RMI and JAI
  • Internet imaging, including the use of Java 2D and JAI with servlets and JSP, the design of Web-based
  • imaging applications, and the Internet Imaging Protocol (IIP)
  • Using the new Image I/O framework to read and write images

"Putting It All Together" sections help you put vital concepts and techniques into practice with interactive examples using actual applications. All sample code in the book is available online.


Sample Content

Online Sample Chapters

Applying Affine Transformation to Images

Rendering Images in JAI

Downloadable Sample Chapter

Click below for Sample Chapter related to this title:


Table of Contents


1. Introduction.

Getting started with Java.

Type of Java Programs.

Approaches to Building an Application with Java.


Evolution of Java Imaging APIs.

How to Use This Book?



2. AWT Image Loading.

Image Loading Approaches.

Asynchronous Image Loading in the AWT.

Image Loading Stages.

Image Loading Using the MediaTracker Class.

Loading Multiple Images.

Image Loading Problems.

Representing an Image.

Using the ImageLoader Class.

Loading Images from Jar Files.

Putting it all Together: MultiImageLoader Bean.


3. Rendering Images in the AWT.

Describing an Image.

Overview of the AWT Imaging API.

Displaying an Image.

Using Image Filters.


Putting it All Together: An Image Viewer Applet and Application.



4. Basics of Java 2D Graphics.

Application Coordinate Systems.

Device Coordinate Systems.

Describing a Shape.



Introduction to Affine Transformation.


5. Rendering Graphics in Java 2D.

Rendering Graphics Objects.

Using the Graphics Class.

Painting in AWT Components.

Painting in Swing Components.

Enter Java 2D.

Graphics2D Rendering Operations.

Interactive Graphics.

Building Interactive Drawing Applications.

Designing a Library of Shapes for Interactive Drawing.

Shapes Library Implementation.

Writing a Shapes Library Client.

Putting it All Together: The JavaPaintShop Application.


6. Rendering Images in Java 2D.

Immediate Mode Model.

Bridging the Immediate Mode Model with the Push Model.

JPEG Viewer: A Simple Image Rendering Example.

Image Browser: An Example to Aggregate Images.

Designing a Component Class for Displaying Images.

Printing in Java 2.

Image Printing Requirements.

Putting it All Together: A Java 2D Image Viewer.


7. Manipulating Images in Java 2D.

What is Interpolation?

Applying Affine Transformation to Images.

Image Manipulation Requirements.

Implementing a Canvas for Image Manipulation.



Implementing Pan and Zoom Together.

Implementing a Lens.

Other Zooming Techniques.

Rotate, Shear and Flip.


8. Manipulating Image Data.

Another Look at the BufferedImage Class.

Color Management.

Overview of the Color API in Java 2D.

Managing Image Data Storage.

Constructing a BufferedImage from Data.

Working with the Raster, SampleModel and DataBuffer Classes.

Calculating Image Statistics.

Obtaining Image Information.


Putting it All Together: An Image Data Viewer.

Image Data Manipulation Using Filters.

Adjusting Window/Level: An Example Using the LookTableOp.


9. Building an ROI Application.

A Scenario.

Steps to Building an ROI Application.

Marking ROI Shapes.

Graphics Overlay.

ROI Measurements.

Designing APIs for ROI Analysis.

Building a Quantitative Analysis Application.



10. Introduction to JAI.

JAI Architecture.

Pull Model API.

Overview of JAI.

Using the JAI class.

Getting Started.

A Simple Example to Load and Display an Image.

Putting it All Together: A PlanarImage Viewer.


11. Rendering Images in JAI.

Rendering Hints.

Managing Memory.

Scheduling Tiles.

Reformatting an Image.

Extending the Border.

A Rendering Example.

Closer Look at the PlanarImage Class.

Using the RenderedOp Class.

Working with Tiles.

Tiled Image Viewer.

Writing to Pixels.

Creating an Aggregate Image.

Renderable Layer.


12. Manipulating Images in JAI.

Interpolation in JAI.

Using the Affine Transform Operators.

Interactive Manipulation.

Cropping an Image.




13. Manipulating Images in JAI.

Types of Operations.

Running Operators.

Spatial Operations.

Edge Detection.


Implementing a Lookup Table.

Adjusting Window/Level.

Point Operators.

Color Conversion.

Frequency Operators.


14. JAI: Analyzing Images in JAI.

Computing Statistics.

Region of Interest Computation.

Putting It All Together: An ROI Analyzer Application.



15. Remote Imaging.

Client-server Architecture.

Distributed Computing.

What is RMI?

Remote Imaging Using RMI (Remote Method Invocation).

A Simple Client-Server example.

Remote Imaging with JAI.


16. Internet Imaging.

A Scenario.

Understanding the World Wide Web.

What is a Servlet?

Getting Started with Servlets and JSP pages.

Using JAI with Servlets.

JavaServer Pages.

Architecting Web-based Imaging Applications.

Applets and Servlets.

Putting it all Together.

Internet Imaging Protocol (IIP).



17. Image I/O.

Using the JPEG Codec.

Overview of the JAI Codec Package.

Using the Image I/O API.


18. Summary and Conclusions.

Comparing AWT Imaging, Java 2D and JAI.

Visualization Framework.


Appendix A: Some Utility Classes.
Appendix B: JavaBeans.
Appendix C: A Bean Collection.


The foundation for this book was laid several years ago. I always wanted to write a down-to-earth imaging book for programmers. Many books on image visualization and image processing have been written by academics and are very math oriented. To build real-world applications, programmers don't need to use mathematics that often. This book is written by a programmer for programmers.

My association with imaging goes back many years. Although I have worked in many different areas of electrical engineering and computer science, imaging has always been my first love. Ever since I wrote a simple image-processing program in Pascal back in 1984, I have never stopped being fascinated by imaging. Later, I was fortunate enough to work for one of the biggest medical imaging companies in the world. While working for this company, I realized how important imaging is for health care. Whether the context is diagnosis, surgical planning, or radiation therapy, imaging plays a very important role in many clinical applications.

Because of my long association with medical imaging, many examples in this book are related to medical applications. Besides my experience in the field of medical imaging, I have worked in the areas of satellite imaging, GIS, and recently Internet imaging. The examples in this book reflect my association with these fields. Because the Internet is playing an increasingly important role in all our lives, an entire chapter is devoted to Internet imaging.

When I conceived the idea of writing this book many years ago, my problem was how to write code that readers could run on their own machines. The Java technology came to me as a godsend, with its "write once, run anywhere" concept. I jumped right on the Java bandwagon. Although Java may not be the best language ever written, it embodies many radical concepts, some of which are not very new. These concepts have been implemented in a simple and practical manner in Java.

This book is neither a beginner's book nor a tutorial. Although some sections may look like a tutorial, this is basically a how-to book. Readers are expected to be familiar with Java concepts. An ideal reader will be one who has programmed in Java and has some knowledge of imaging concepts.



Absolute transformation, 137
Abstract Windows Toolkit (AWT), 2, 8, 745
    imaging APIs, 59-63
    loading images in, 17-55
    rendering images in, 57-101
AC component, 746
ActionListener interface, 788
actionPerformed() method, 211, 269
ActiveX controls, 796
Acyclic gradient paints, 164
Acyclic graphs, 438n1
Acyclic rule
    and GradientPaint class, 163
AddCollection operator, 593
AddConst operations, 592
addImage method, 24
Addition operators, 592
Add operator, 593
addPoints() method, 572
Advance loading, 35
    role of, in multimedia/e-commerce, 707
Affine operator, 535, 540, 572
    parameters, 540
Affine transformation, 10, 11, 105, 126-135, 271
    applying to images, 276-277
    applying to ROI, 620
    concatenation, 130
    homogeneous coordinates, 130-132
    rotation, 129
    scaling, 128-129
    for setting display and flip modes, 285-286
    translation, 127-128
AffineTransformation class
    inverse transformation methods in, 143
    utility methods, 143-144
Affine transformation operators
    Affine operator, 540
    in JAI, 535-540
    Rotate operator, 537-538
    Scale operator, 536
    Shear operator, 538-539
    Translate operator, 536
    Transpose operator, 539-540
AffineTransform class, 8, 10, 105, 126, 135-144, 146, 147, 271, 320, 535, 572
    AffineTransform constructors, 136-137
    concatenate methods, 139-140
    constructors, 136-137
    delta transformation, 142
    general transformation methods, 141
    inverse transformation, 143
    standard transformation methods, 137-139
    static methods, 144
    transforming a shape, 142
    transforming points, 141-142
    utility methods, 143-144
AffineTransformOp class, 276-277
    interpolation techniques supported by, 279
Affine warping, 455, 564-565
Aggregate image creation, 518-520
Alpha channel, 598
AlphaComposite class, 166
Alpha-red-green-blue (ARGB), 72
Animation, 35, 238
    and overlaying graphics, 251
Animation (cine) loop, 87
Annotation, 58
AnnoText object, 203
Anterior to posterior (AP)
    in medical imaging, 105
APIs. See Application program interfaces
AppFrame class, 88
Applet class
    images drawn on, 65
Applets, 4-5, 8, 9, 677, 720-725, 741
    components, 154
    edge detection performed by, 738
    image display with, 737
    image objects obtained in, 21
    image viewer run as, 86, 87
    Java Plug-in for running, 668-669
    loading images from JAR files in, 49-52
    RMI client as, 668
APPLET tag, 4
appletviewer, 5, 52
Application coordinate systems, 105-106
ApplicationFrame class
    code for, 783-788
    JavaPaintShop class extension of, 209
    printContents() method of, 261
Application program interfaces, 2, 6
    designing for ROI analysis, 396-408
    overview of JAI, 448
    pull model, 439-447
    with applets, servlets, JSPs, and JavaBeans, 725-737
    building with Java, 6-7
    image data viewer, 369-371
    image information retrieval, 364
    image objects obtained in, 21-22
    ROI analyzer, 622-643
    with servlets, JSPs, and JavaBeans, 715-720
    simple image viewer with MediaTracker, 24-25. See also Examples
applyTransform() method, 276, 277
AppMenuBar class, 788
Approximating curves, 391-392
Arc length parameterization, 123
Arcs, 112, 119, 158, 153
Arc2D class, 119
AreaAverageScaleFilter class, 70
Area object, 619
Area of interest, 445
Area operators, 457, 573, 576-583, 610
    convolution, 577
    image enhancement, 578-579
    KernelJAI class, 576
    spatial filtering, 579-583
Area statistic, 402, 403, 432
ARGB. See Alpha-red-green-blue
Arguments, 650
Arithmetic coding, 747
Arithmetic operators, 456, 592-596, 610
Aspect ratio, 443
    and imaging, 1
Asynchronous image loading, 17-20, 35, 55
AttributedCharacterIterator interface, 169
AttributeSetterUtil class, 216
    code for, 217-218
    static methods in, 218
atx variable, 285, 286
AWT. See Abstract Windows Toolkit
AWT components
    painting in, 154-157
AWT Image, 653, 658, 675
    BufferedImage converted to, 226-227
    converting to BufferedImage, 227-228
awtImage attribute, 240, 241
AWT Image object
    converting to PlanarImage object, 467
AWT images
    image-rendering component hierarchy for displaying, 780
AWTImageViewer class
    code for, 658-660
AWT imaging, 10, 437
    and image manipulation, 271
    Java2D and JAI compared with, 778-779
    multiple-page printing in, 253

B Background color, 63, 148
BandCombine operator parameters, 602
Banded raster, 349
BandedSampleModel constructor, 347
BandMerge operator, 782
Band(s), 340, 364
    interleaving, 344, 345, 355
    offset, 344
BandSelect operator, 602, 635, 644
    applying, 603
    parameters, 602
Banks, 342
BasicStroke class, 160
BeanBox window
    FileBrowser bean running in, 814
    MultiImageLoader bean running in, 810
BeanInfo class, 5, 790, 791
Beans, 5-6
    chart bean suite, 823-828
    defined, 789
    execution of, 795-796
    FileBrowser, 813-823
    instantiating/running, 795-796
    JSP applications with, 711
    JSPs with, 710-720
    MultiImageLoader, 809-813
    packaging, 806-807
    and persistence, 802
    structure and behavior of, 793
    visibility, 793
Bean target class, 807
Bezier curve, 120, 124, 125, 392
Bicubic interpolation, 572
Bilinear interpolation, 273, 274, 279, 572
Binarize operator, 782
Binary large object (BLOB), 707
Blood flow measurements, 390
Blurring images, 579
BMP, 763
Bone mineral densitometry (BMD), 390
Book class, 253, 258-259
BorderExtender class
    hierarchy, 485
    methods of, 486



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