Home > Articles

This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Sample Regression Analysis

To lay the groundwork for a comparison of Bayesian regression analysis with traditional least squares, Figure 6.2 shows the basics of a very small analysis, rendered in Excel. It includes

  • Values in B2:D6, which are used as inputs to Excel’s LINEST function.

  • Values in the range C2:D6, which contains two predictor variables in columns C and D.

  • Values in cells B2:B6, which contain a predicted variable.

  • The LINEST function, in the range F2:H6, which contains and displays the results of the function. For example, the contents of each cell in F2:H6 are computed with the dynamic formula that’s repeated here:

  • After entering the formula in F2:H6 of Figure 6.2, I copied and saved it as the result values in F8:H12. That is because I want you to be able to use Excel’s Solver, or to change the regression coefficients manually, so you can compare the results of that change with the original results. By doing so, you can demonstrate for yourself what happens when you try to maximize regression’s accuracy by adjusting the returned coefficients and intercept. (You cannot change just part of an array formula; it’s all or nothing at all. But if you have saved the results of LINEST as values, you are free to change any of those values as you please.)

  • The regression equation’s predicted value for the first of the five records is shown in cell L2 of Figure 6.3. It is calculated with this equation:


    which is then copied and pasted into L3:L6 of Figure 6.3.

Figure 6.3

Figure 6.3 A slight change in the input data or in a regression coefficient can result in a dramatic change in the results.

  • I also entered the formulas in L2:L6 as values in J2:J6 by first copying the formulas, and then pasting them into J2:J6, choosing one of the Paste Values options.

  • Finally, I entered formulas for the sum of the squared deviations in J8:J12 and L8:L12, and their sums in J14:L14.

Open the Excel workbook for this chapter and activate the worksheet named Fig 6.3. Verify that the sums of the squared deviations are both 0.415.

Now, change the value of one or both the regression coefficients in cells F2, G2, or H2. Make your entry a numeric value. Notice that the values displayed in cells J14 and L14 no longer equal one another. While you’re at it, you might note that the value in L14 is now larger than the value shown in cell J14.

The value in cell J14 is unchanged from its original value. That’s why I saved the results of the LINEST function in F2:H6—so that it would be unaffected by your selection of a different value for the regression coefficient in cell F2, G2, or H2. Either way, the sum of the squared deviations in L14 has increased above its value when the LINEST results were undisturbed. And that means the regression equation is not doing as accurate a job of forecasting outcomes as when you left its coefficients alone.

What’s the point of all this? It’s that traditional, least squares techniques for regression analysis do not necessarily tell you what you need or want to know about the relationship between an outcome variable and one or more predictor variables. Of course, you don’t want to ignore the traditional point estimate that’s returned by the traditional R2 calculations, but neither should you ignore the results of calculations that return an R2—and associated statistics—that don’t quite meet or exceed the criterion of maximized R2.

To keep some flexibility in your analytic tools, it’s a good idea to view the results of a regression analysis through both a frequentist and a Bayesian lens. I’ve already discussed some of the issues surrounding the frequentist approach in this chapter—in particular, the worksheet function LINEST—so let’s now take a look first at regression methods that rely heavily on matrix algebra, and then on one alternative from the Bayesian toolbox, R’s quap function.

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020