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This chapter is from the book

1.3 The Case for Domain-Specific Hardware

Domain-specific hardware can be designed to be the best implementation for specific functions. An example of successful domain-specific hardware is the graphic processor unit (GPU).

GPUs were born to support advanced graphics interfaces by covering a well-defined domain of computing—matrix algebra—which is applicable to other workloads such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). The combination of a domain-specific architecture with a domain-specific language (for example, CUDA and its libraries) led to rapid innovation.

Another important measure that is often overlooked is power per packet. Today’s cloud services are targeted at 100 Gbps, which for a reasonable packet size is equivalent to 25 Mpps. An acceptable power budget is 25 watts, which equates to 1 microwatt per packet per second. To achieve this minuscule amount of power usage, selecting the most appropriate hardware architecture is essential. For example, Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have good programmability but cannot meet this stringent power requirement. You might wonder what the big deal is between 25 watts and 100 watts per server. On an average installation of 24 to 40 servers per rack, it means saving 1.8 to 3.0 kilowatts of power per rack. To give you an example, 3 kilowatts is the peak consumption of a single-family home in Europe.

When dealing with features such as encryption (both symmetric and asymmetric) and compression, dedicated hardware structures explicitly designed to solve these issues have much higher throughput and consume far less power than general-purpose processors.

This book should prove to the reader that a properly architected domain-specific hardware platform, programmable through a domain-specific language (DSL), combined with hardware offload for compression and encryption, is the best implementation for a DSN.

Although hardware is an essential aspect of a distributed services platform, a distributed services platform also uses a considerable amount of software.

The management and control planes are entirely software, and even the data plane must be software defined. The hardware is what provides the performance and lowers latency and jitter when used in conjunction with software. When we compare performance and delays, the differences can be enormous. Leading solutions exist in which the first packet of a flow incurs a 20-millisecond delay and other solutions in which the same packet is processed in 2 microseconds: a difference of four orders of magnitude.

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