Home > Articles

Simple Sorting

  • Print
  • + Share This
This chapter is from the book

Sorting Objects

For simplicity we've applied the sorting algorithms we've looked at thus far to a primitive data type: long. However, sorting routines will more likely be applied to objects than primitive types. Accordingly, we show a Java program in Listing 3.4, objectSort.java, that sorts an array of Person objects (last seen in the classDataArray.java program in Chapter 2).

Java Code for Sorting Objects

The algorithm used in our Java program is the insertion sort from the preceding section. The Person objects are sorted on lastName; this is the key field. The objectSort.java program is shown in Listing 3.4.

LISTING 3.4 The objectSort.java Program

// objectSort.java
// demonstrates sorting objects (uses insertion sort)
// to run this program: C>java ObjectSortApp
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
class Person
  {
  private String lastName;
  private String firstName;
  private int age;
  //-----------------------------------------------------------
  public Person(String last, String first, int a)
   {                // constructor
   lastName = last;
   firstName = first;
   age = a;
   }
  //-----------------------------------------------------------
  public void displayPerson()
   {
   System.out.print("  Last name: " + lastName);
   System.out.print(", First name: " + firstName);
   System.out.println(", Age: " + age);
   }
  //-----------------------------------------------------------
  public String getLast()      // get last name
   { return lastName; }
  } // end class Person
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
class ArrayInOb
  {
  private Person[] a;        // ref to array a
  private int nElems;        // number of data items
//--------------------------------------------------------------
  public ArrayInOb(int max)     // constructor
   {
   a = new Person[max];        // create the array
   nElems = 0;            // no items yet
   }
//--------------------------------------------------------------
                   // put person into array
  public void insert(String last, String first, int age)
   {
   a[nElems] = new Person(last, first, age);
   nElems++;             // increment size
   }
//--------------------------------------------------------------
  public void display()       // displays array contents
   {
   for(int j=0; j<nElems; j++)    // for each element,
     a[j].displayPerson();     // display it
   System.out.println("");
   }
//--------------------------------------------------------------
  public void insertionSort()
   {
   int in, out;

   for(out=1; out<nElems; out++) // out is dividing line
     {
     Person temp = a[out];    // remove marked person
     in = out;          // start shifting at out

     while(in>0 &&        // until smaller one found,
        a[in-1].getLast().compareTo(temp.getLast())>0)
      {
      a[in] = a[in-1];     // shift item to the right
      --in;          // go left one position
      }
     a[in] = temp;        // insert marked item
     } // end for
   } // end insertionSort()
//--------------------------------------------------------------
  } // end class ArrayInOb
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
class ObjectSortApp
  {
  public static void main(String[] args)
   {
   int maxSize = 100;       // array size
   ArrayInOb arr;         // reference to array
   arr = new ArrayInOb(maxSize); // create the array

   arr.insert("Evans", "Patty", 24);
   arr.insert("Smith", "Doc", 59);
   arr.insert("Smith", "Lorraine", 37);
   arr.insert("Smith", "Paul", 37);
   arr.insert("Yee", "Tom", 43);
   arr.insert("Hashimoto", "Sato", 21);
   arr.insert("Stimson", "Henry", 29);
   arr.insert("Velasquez", "Jose", 72);
   arr.insert("Vang", "Minh", 22);
   arr.insert("Creswell", "Lucinda", 18);

   System.out.println("Before sorting:");
   arr.display();         // display items

   arr.insertionSort();      // insertion-sort them

   System.out.println("After sorting:");
   arr.display();         // display them again
   } // end main()
  } // end class ObjectSortApp
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Here's the output of this program:

Before sorting:
  Last name: Evans, First name: Patty, Age: 24
  Last name: Smith, First name: Doc, Age: 59
  Last name: Smith, First name: Lorraine, Age: 37
  Last name: Smith, First name: Paul, Age: 37
  Last name: Yee, First name: Tom, Age: 43
  Last name: Hashimoto, First name: Sato, Age: 21
  Last name: Stimson, First name: Henry, Age: 29
  Last name: Velasquez, First name: Jose, Age: 72
  Last name: Vang, First name: Minh, Age: 22
  Last name: Creswell, First name: Lucinda, Age: 18

After sorting:
  Last name: Creswell, First name: Lucinda, Age: 18
  Last name: Evans, First name: Patty, Age: 24
  Last name: Hashimoto, First name: Sato, Age: 21
  Last name: Smith, First name: Doc, Age: 59
  Last name: Smith, First name: Lorraine, Age: 37
  Last name: Smith, First name: Paul, Age: 37
  Last name: Stimson, First name: Henry, Age: 29
  Last name: Vang, First name: Minh, Age: 22
  Last name: Velasquez, First name: Jose, Age: 72
  Last name: Yee, First name: Tom, Age: 43

Lexicographical Comparisons

The insertSort() method in objectSort.java is similar to that in insertSort.java, but it has been adapted to compare the lastName key values of records rather than the value of a primitive type.

We use the compareTo() method of the String class to perform the comparisons in the insertSort() method. Here's the expression that uses it:

a[in-1].getLast().compareTo(temp.getLast()) > 0

The compareTo() method returns different integer values depending on the lexicographical (that is, alphabetical) ordering of the String for which it's invoked and the String passed to it as an argument, as shown in Table 3.1.

TABLE 3.1 Operation of the compareTo() Method

s2.compareTo(s1)

Return Value

s1 < s2

< 0

s1 equals s2

0

s1 > s2

> 0


For example, if s1 is "cat" and s2 is "dog", the function will return a number less than 0. In the objectSort.java program, this method is used to compare the last name of a[in-1] with the last name of temp.

Stability

Sometimes it matters what happens to data items that have equal keys. For example, you may have employee data arranged alphabetically by last names. (That is, the last names were used as key values in the sort.) Now you want to sort the data by ZIP code, but you want all the items with the same ZIP code to continue to be sorted by last names. You want the algorithm to sort only what needs to be sorted, and leave everything else in its original order. Some sorting algorithms retain this secondary ordering; they're said to be stable.

All the algorithms in this chapter are stable. For example, notice the output of the objectSort.java program (Listing 3.4). Three persons have the last name of Smith. Initially, the order is Doc Smith, Lorraine Smith, and Paul Smith. After the sort, this ordering is preserved, despite the fact that the various Smith objects have been moved to new locations.

  • + Share This
  • 🔖 Save To Your Account

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.

Overview


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information


To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.

Surveys

Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.

Newsletters

If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information


Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.

Security


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.

Children


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.

Marketing


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information


If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.

Choice/Opt-out


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information


Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents


California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure


Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.

Links


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact


Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice


We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020