Home > Articles > Software Development & Management

This chapter is from the book Return Address

Return Address

My application is using Messaging (53) to perform a Request-Reply (154).

How does a replier know where to send the reply?

Messages are often thought of as completely independent, such that any sender can send a message on any channel whenever it likes. However, messages are often associated. With Request-Reply (154) pairs, two messages appear independent, but the reply message has a one-to-one correspondence with the request message that caused it. Thus, the replier that processes the request message cannot simply send the reply message on any channel it wants; it must send it on the channel on which the requestor expects the reply.

Each receiver could automatically know which channel to send replies on, but hard-coding such assumptions makes the software less flexible and more difficult to maintain. Furthermore, a single replier could be processing calls from several different requestors, so the reply channel is not the same for every message; it depends on which requestor sent the request message.

Figure 5.5 Uncertain Where to Send Replies

A requestor potentially may not want a reply sent back to itself. Rather, it may have an associated callback processor to process replies, and the callback processor may monitor a different channel than the requestor does (or the requestor may not monitor any channels at all). The requestor could have multiple callback processors, requiring replies for different requests from the same requestor to be sent to different processors.

The reply channel will not necessarily transmit replies back to the requestor; it will transmit them to whomever the requestor wants to process the replies, because it’s listening to the channel the requestor specified. So, knowing what requestor sent a request or what channel it was sent on does not necessarily tell the replier what channel to send the reply on. Even if it did, the replier would still have to infer which reply channel to use for a particular requestor or request channel. It’s easier for the request to explicitly specify which reply channel to use. What is needed is a way for the requestor to tell the replier where and how to send back a reply.

Figure 5.6 The request message should contain a Return Address that indicates where to send the reply message.

This way, the replier does not need to know where to send the reply; it can just obtain the reply channel address from the request message. If different messages to the same replier require replies to different places, the replier can determine from each request message where to send the reply for that request. This encapsulates the knowledge of what channels to use for requests and replies within the requestor so those decisions do not have to be hard-coded within the replier. A Return Address is put in the header of a message because it’s not part of the application data being transmitted.

A message’s Return Address is analogous to the reply-to field in an e-mail message. The reply-to e-mail address is usually the same as the from address, but the sender can set it to a different address to receive replies in an account other than the one used to send the original message.

When the reply is sent back over the channel indicated by the Return Address, it may also need a Correlation Identifier (163). The Return Address tells the receiver what channel to put the reply message on; the Correlation Identifier (163) tells the sender which request a reply is for.

Example: JMS Reply-To Property

JMS messages have a predefined property for Return Addresses, JMSReplyTo. Its type is a Destination (a Topic or Queue) rather than just a string for the destination name, which ensures that the destination (e.g., Message Channel [60]) really exists, at least when the request is sent [JMS 1.1], [Monson-Haefel].

A sender that wishes to specify a reply channel that is a Queue would do so like this:

Queue requestQueue = // Specify the request destination
Queue replyQueue = // Specify the reply destination
Message requestMessage = // Create the request message
MessageProducer requestSender = session.createProducer(requestQueue);

Then, the receiver would send the reply message like this:

Queue requestQueue = // Specify the request destination
MessageConsumer requestReceiver = session.createConsumer(requestQueue);
Message requestMessage = requestReceiver.receive();
Message replyMessage = // Create the reply message
Destination replyQueue = requestMessage.getJMSReplyTo();
MessageProducer replySender = session.createProducer(replyQueue);

Example: .NET Response-Queue Property

.NET messages also have a predefined property for Return Addresses, ResponseQueue. Its type is a MessageQueue (e.g., Message Channel [60]), the queue that the application should send a response message to [SysMsg], [Dickman].

Example: Web Services Request/Response

SOAP 1.2 incorporates the Request-Response Message Exchange pattern [SOAP 1.2 Part 2], but the address to which to send the reply is unspecified and therefore implied. This SOAP pattern will need to support an optional Return Address to truly make SOAP messages asynchronous and to delink the responder from the requestor.

The emerging WS-Addressing standard helps address this issue by specifying how to identify a web service endpoint and what XML elements to use. Such an address can be used in a SOAP message to specify a Return Address. See the discussion of WS-Addressing in Chapter 14, “Concluding Remarks.”

InformIT Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from InformIT and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites, develop new products and services, conduct educational research and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@informit.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by InformIT. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.informit.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020