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This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

Section 4: Verbal

Time: 75 minutes

41 questions

This section consists of three different types of questions: Sentence Correction, Reading Comprehension, and Critical Reasoning.

The Sentence Correction questions contain a sentence that is either partially or completely underlined. Following the sentence are five answer choices, each of which give you a different way to phrase the underlined portion of the sentence. Answer choice A repeats the original sentence; choose answer choice A if you do not want to change the underlined portion at all. The remaining answer choices are all different.

Your answer choices will depend on the standards of written English, especially sentence construction, grammar, and word choice. The questions test your ability to express an idea clearly, simply, and correctly, without being awkward or redundant, while obeying all grammar rules.

Each Reading Comprehension question is based on the content of the accompanying passage. Read the passage and choose the best answer from each of the questions that follow the passage. The correct answers will refer to information that is stated or implied in the passage.

To answer the Critical Reasoning questions, read the question and any accompanying information, and then select the best answer choice from those given.

Questions 1–3 are based on the following passage.

Line       Mary Cassatt is revered as one of America’s important Impressionist artists. Her
      most prevalent theme was motherhood and women, which she depicted with both 
      simplicity and gentle colors. Born in 1844, Cassatt spent most of her life in France and
      was greatly influenced by French artists such as Manet and Degas. Cassatt’s most well-
(5)   known paintings include Mother and Child, Lady at the Tea-Table, and Modern Women.
      Many of her pieces are featured in art museums across the country.
           Cassatt was a great practical supporter of the Impressionist movement as a whole,
      both by providing direct financial help and by promoting the works of Impressionists in
      the United States. In the late 19th century, she persuaded her brother Alexander to
(10)  purchase paintings by European Impressionists such as Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas,
      and Pissarro, making him the first important collector of such works in America.
      She also advised and encouraged her friends to augment their collections of works by
      Impressionists and other contemporary French artists.
           Following her sister’s death, Cassatt began to move away from Impressionism. She
(15)  experimented with a variety of techniques, including asymmetric composition and
      informal, more natural positions. Cassatt demonstrated a versatility few of her contemporaries
      shared, and in 1904, France awarded Cassatt the Legion of Honor, a distinction
      honoring eminent service to France. Throughout her life, Mary Cassatt continued
      to promote the works of artists from around the world, often acting as a role model for
(20)  young American painters.
  1. The passage is primarily concerned with
    1. Mary Cassatt’s impact on the success of French artists
    2. the role models upon whom Mary Cassatt relied for inspiration
    3. Mary Cassatt’s contribution to art and artists around the world
    4. Mary Cassatt’s devotion to contemporary French artists
    5. the importance placed on varying artistic techniques of the 19th century
  2. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would characterize Mary Cassatt as being
    1. focused on advancing the arts, both in her native country and abroad
    2. unwilling to depart from the traditional techniques employed by Impressionists
    3. disinterested in anything other than Impressionist paintings
    4. frustrated by her inability to be as successful as Manet and Degas
    5. hampered by a lack of support from her friends and colleagues
  3. Each of the following aspects of Mary Cassatt’s artistic style is mentioned in the passage EXCEPT
    1. her use of color
    2. the brush strokes she employed
    3. her experimentation with composition
    4. her preferred subject matter
    5. the positioning of her models
  4. Few animals brave the hot sun of the desert. One exception to this is the fringe-toed lizard, which moves at high speeds across the burning sand to catch insects. When the lizard gets too hot, it lifts its tail and body off the hot surface to stay cool, or if the heat becomes unbearable, it can burrow underground to escape the heat.

    Which one of the following, if true, least helps to explain the fringe-toed lizard’s choice to search for insects under the intense heat?

    1. The chief predators of the lizard must take cover from the sun during midday.
    2. Fewer insects are available as the day progresses.
    3. Other scavengers chase the insects underground as soon as the temperature begins to drop.
    4. The temperature inside the lizard’s burrow might exceed the surface temperature of the desert.
    5. Lizards cool themselves by climbing onto vegetation and taking advantage of any available breezes.
  5. In the movie “The Big Date,” released in 2004, there is a scene that is virtually identical to a scene in “Robber Barron,” which was made in 1986. The scene is so unique that it is highly unlikely that the similarity is mere coincidence. Therefore, it is probable that the makers of “The Big Date” saw “Robber Barron.”

    Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?

    1. A third movie that was probably seen by both the makers of “The Big Date” and “Robber Barron” was made in 1960 and contained essentially the same scene.
    2. “The Big Date” is a comedy, whereas “Robber Barron” is a drama.
    3. Both movies were released only in the United States.
    4. The scene in “Robber Barron” was also included in the play and novel from which the movie was adapted.
    5. According to critics, “The Big Date” was a far better movie than “Robber Barron” and contained many innovative scenes.
  6. In the last 10 years, more people relocated to the American South than the northern states.
    1. the northern states
    2. compared to northern states
    3. did the northern states
    4. northern states did
    5. to the northern states
  7. According to a study by the National Foundation for Youth Athletics, parents are enrolling about 5 million children in soccer programs each year, a number almost equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s basketball programs.
    1. equivalent to the enrollment of
    2. as many as the enrollment of
    3. as many as are enrolled in
    4. equivalent to the number of children enrolled in
    5. equal to those children who are enrolled in
  8. Dr. Ryan is an excellent zookeeper his knowledge and experience in animal husbandry is unparalleled.
    1. Dr. Ryan is an excellent zookeeper his knowledge and experience in animal husbandry is unparalleled.
    2. Dr. Ryan’s knowledge and experience in animal husbandry is unparalleled that is why he is an excellent zookeeper.
    3. Because of his unparalleled knowledge and experience in animal husbandry, Dr. Ryan is an excellent zookeeper.
    4. His unparalleled animal husbandry knowledge and experience makes Dr. Ryan an excellent zookeeper.
    5. Because of Dr. Ryan’s unparalleled knowledge and animal husbandry experience, he was a keeper of excellent zoos.
  9. Motivational speakers, one who is deaf, will talk to our group about empowerment, personal development, and goal setting at the conference this weekend.
    1. one who
    2. and one of them who
    3. one of which
    4. one of them who
    5. one of whom

Questions 10–12 are based on the following passage.

Line       Powerful geologic forces are at work on Earth, shifting the deceptively solid
      ground upon which we stand. The relatively new scientific concept of plate tectonics, first
      posited in the 1960s, has revolutionized our understanding of the volatile nature of the
      Earth. This theory has provided sound, scientific answers to questions speculated on for
(5)   centuries regarding such events as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Although controversy
      still surrounds the idea of plate tectonics, enough evidence exists to make it the
      most plausible explanation for many geologic phenomena.
           The lithosphere, Earth’s outer crust, is composed of both oceanic crust and continental
      crust. This topmost layer was long held to be continuous and unbroken; however,
(10)  it is actually comprised of many large segments, or plates, that vary in size and shape
      and move ponderously about at differing speeds atop a more viscous layer called the
      asthenosphere. While the movement is exceedingly slow—no more than a few centimeters
      per year—the effects on the planet over millions of years has been no less than catastrophic.
(15)       At the plate boundaries, assorted deformations occur, based on the type of interaction
      that goes on between the plates. For example, when a thin oceanic plate collides
      with a thick continental plate, the oceanic plate is forced beneath the continental plate
      in a process called subduction. On the other hand, when two oceanic plates collide, one
      might be pushed under the other, causing hot magma to rise from the asthenosphere 
(20)  and forming submarine volcanoes; over time, volcanic debris piles up on the ocean floor
      until the mass breaks the surface and forms an island. Earth’s mountain ranges were
      formed when continental plates collided, and the crust was compressed and forced
      upward. When two plates slip sideways against each other at a transform-fault boundary,
      a tremendous amount of friction is created. This can result in an extraordinary buildup
(25)  of pressure along the plate boundary. Upon the sudden release of this pressure, the
      plates jerk apart, resulting in an earthquake.
           The theory of plate tectonics offers a reason for the existence of mountains, volcanoes,
      and earthquakes, just as the presence of these phenomena provide support for
      plate tectonics. In addition, compelling evidence exists in the fossil record to promote
(30)  the concept that the lithosphere has been roaming across the Earth’s surface for millions
      of years. Corresponding plant and animal fossils have been found along the matching
      coastlines of Africa and South America, even though those continents are now separated
      by the Atlantic Ocean. It is unlikely that prehistoric plants and animals were able to
      either traverse the Atlantic Ocean or form independently of one another on such vastly
(35)  different land masses. It is more likely that these two land masses were once joined.
  1. According to the passage, researchers believe that the collision of continental plates is responsible for
    1. major differences in the fossil record
    2. the large number of earthquakes along Africa’s coast
    3. the creation of mountain ranges
    4. an unlikely number of prehistoric plants and animals
    5. numerous volcanic eruptions
  2. The theory that Africa and South America were once part of one large land mass would most seriously be undermined if it were found that
    1. data concerning the age and type of fossils discovered on both continents was unreliable
    2. other continents also had matching coastlines
    3. the methods that determine the movement of continental plates could be improved upon
    4. mountain ranges in North America were even older than originally thought
    5. movement of the continental plates is steadily increasing
  3. The passage suggests that if researchers had not found any fossil evidence to support the theory of plate tectonics, the researchers would have concluded that
    1. plate tectonics is not a viable theory and should not be used to explain the current location of the continents on Earth
    2. the results of ongoing studies of plate boundaries and other geologic phenomena are sufficient to prove the theory of plate tectonics
    3. fossil evidence is generally never conclusive in proving scientific theories
    4. plate tectonics will likely be disproved when further research is conducted
    5. no plants or animals were alive at the time Africa and South America separated from one another
  4. In a recent poll, only 24 percent of the public favor a leader who is as liberal or is even more liberal than the current leader.
    1. as liberal or is even more liberal than
    2. as liberal a leader as is
    3. at least as liberal as being
    4. a leader as liberal or more liberal than is
    5. a leader that is more liberal, or at least as liberal as,
  5. In 1977, a young wolf was observed entering a cave in pursuit of prey. Soon, other wolves started entering the cave, and over the next few seasons, this behavior became the norm for the entire wolf pack. Before 1977, no wolf had been seen entering or leaving the cave, and no signs of wolves were found in the cave. By 2004, the entire pack was spending most of its winters in or near the cave. Therefore, these wolves are capable of adopting and passing on new behaviors, and are not merely bound by their genetics.

    The argument above is based on which of the following assumptions?

    1. Genetic mutations in wolves can occur in a fairly short timespan such as a few decades.
    2. New behaviors that emerge in wolf populations over the course of a couple of decades are not necessarily genetically predetermined.
    3. Only after certain patterns of behavior become the norm for a given animal population can it be inferred that a genetic mutation has occurred in that group.
    4. The social actions of wolves are fully independent of their genetics.
    5. The wolves’ new pattern of behavior will continue for several generations to come.
  6. Prison inmates are far more likely to be mentally ill than members of the general population. This fact shows that the peculiar environment of prison, with its inherent stresses and deprivations, tends to cause or exacerbate symptoms of mental illness.

    The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the basis that the argument

    1. fails to define the term “mentally ill”
    2. presupposes that the prison environment is unique
    3. simply restates the claim that “inherent stresses and deprivations” exist in prison without providing any evidence in support
    4. takes a correlation between mental illness and prison as proof that prison causes mental illness
    5. focuses on stress and deprivation only, while ignoring other characteristics of the prison environment
  7. Literature expert: Great pieces of literature have often caused outrage among the public when first published; for example, Ulysses, by James Joyce, was banned for years due to its alleged obscenity, and Walt Whitman’s poem collection Leaves of Grass was banned for its use of explicit language. So, since literature often causes outrage and shock, we should not limit the use of public funds to support books that many people find obscene.

    Which of the following is an assumption that the literature expert’s argument requires in order to properly come to his or her conclusion?

    1. Most literature is obscene.
    2. James Joyce and Walt Whitman received public funding for their writing.
    3. Literature was more shocking in the past.
    4. Public funds should be used to support literature.
    5. Literature should not be shocking or obscene.
  8. Jenny predicts that the author’s new novel will be as controversial as was his first three books.
    1. will be as controversial as was
    2. would be controversial such as
    3. being as controversial as were
    4. would be controversial as is
    5. will be as controversial as were
  9. Unlike Beethoven’s timeless music that endured through the decades, the “Ballad Babes” were a one-hit wonder whose music was soon forgotten.
    1. Beethoven’s timeless music that endured
    2. Beethoven and his timeless music, enduring
    3. the timeless music of Beethoven that has endured
    4. Beethoven, whose timeless music endured
    5. Beethoven and his timeless music which endured

Questions 19–22 are based on the following passage.

Line       More than 200 years ago, at the request of President Jefferson, the corps of volunteers
      for North Western Discovery set off under the command of Meriwether Lewis and
      William Clark to find the fastest water route across North America. The path they were
      to carve out would be the first of its kind; they were setting a course through the terr
(5)   itory of potentially dangerous Indian tribes and ferocious animals. None but the fearless and
      inventive, the most resourceful and curious, would undertake such a venture. In
      1803, virtually no one had attempted to cross the stretch of land between the mighty
      Mississippi River and the vast Pacific Ocean using only water routes. Intrepid pioneers
      such as Lewis and Clark deserve to be remembered now, some two centuries after their
(10)  arduous journey into the unknown lands west of the Mississippi River.
           After receiving wilderness training in Washington, DC, Meriwether Lewis set out
      on July 5, 1803; picked up guns at Harpers Ferry; and then moved to Pittsburgh to pick
      up a 55-foot, commissioned keelboat. Floating it down the Ohio River, he met with
      William Clark in Indiana, who took over command of the boat and crew, while Lewis
(15)  rode on to get supplies in St. Louis, which is located adjacent to the Mississippi River.
      Months later, in May, the party gathered in St. Louis. The 40-some men were to travel from
      there to the Pacific Ocean in only the keelboat and two smaller boats, all of which
      were moved by sails, towropes, poles, or oars.
           The beginning of their journey was a voyage of confirmation; traders had gathered 
(20)  information of various possible water routes to the Pacific, and Lewis and Clark’s
      mission was to confirm the truth and observe anything else of importance along the way.
      They were also to catalogue new species of plants and animals that they encountered,
      and work toward peace with several Indian tribes. History tells us that the few messages
      the men were able to send back told of their health and high spirits. They were all eager
(25)  to explore just what might lie beyond the Mississippi.
           Although the explorers were well supplied and well equipped, their journey was
      still a dangerous one. Until this point in time, the only other individuals to have crossed
      the “wild west” were fur traders and trappers. It was largely Indian territory, and
      although most tribes, such as the Oto, were friendly, the Missouri and the Mandan, and
(30)  the Sioux and the Blackfeet, tried to impede the adventurers’ progress on more than one
      occasion. Illness claimed the life of one man early, but despite the strenuous pace of the
      expedition, there were no further losses.
           In spite of the long winters and harsh conditions of wilderness living, the travelers
      continued to forge west in search of an efficient trade route using only the rivers. In
(35)  September 1806, some three years after they started on their voyage, Lewis, Clark, and
      their team made it to the Pacific Ocean. Relying on the Missouri and Columbia rivers as
      their main “highways,” and taking the help of friendly Indian tribes whenever they
      could, the expedition was a success, and served as an example for all manner of future
      westward expansion.
  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
    1. discuss historical opposition to U.S. expansion into Indian territory
    2. describe an important historical event
    3. critique a presidential decision
    4. compare and contrast a historical situation with a present-day one
    5. explain the methods used by pioneers in exploring new territory
  2. According to the passage, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were hired to
    1. engage unfriendly Indian tribes in battle to secure safe passage through the wilderness
    2. identify and name all the rivers between Washington, DC, and the Pacific Ocean
    3. determine the quickest way to travel by water from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean
    4. chart the safest route across land from all points east of the Mississippi River
    5. calculate the length of time it would take a group of people to travel through the wilderness
  3. The author lists the different means by which Lewis and Clark’s boats were moved in order to
    1. refute the position taken by President Jefferson that Lewis and Clark should travel by land instead of by water
    2. analyze the various ways in which people traveled across the wilderness
    3. demonstrate that Lewis and Clark’s boats were unique in their design and function
    4. emphasize the complexity of the venture that Lewis and Clark were about to undertake
    5. support the argument that travel on the Mississippi River was not as common as most people thought
  4. The author uses the word intrepid in line 8 most likely to emphasize that the
    1. journey would most likely come to a devastating end
    2. information given to Lewis and Clark regarding their trip was incomplete
    3. explorers would need to be courageous to successfully complete their mission
    4. decision to explore the vast wilderness west of the Mississippi River was hastily made
    5. search for a trade route would be conducted in vain
  5. Having endured a tumultuous childhood, Theresa has no conception of the moral difference between right and wrong, only between what is legally permitted and what is not. When Theresa committed her offense, she did not recognize the fact that it was a morally wrong act, despite knowing that it was illegal.

    From the statements above, which of the following can be properly inferred?

    1. Theresa committed no offense that was not legally permissible.
    2. Theresa did something that was morally wrong.
    3. Moral ignorance is never excusable in the eyes of the law.
    4. Theresa’s childhood could have provided more sufficient moral training, even in the circumstances.
    5. Theresa could now be taught the moral difference between right and wrong.
  6. Psychologist: Some theories posit completely different causal mechanisms from those posited by the Smith psychological theory that are more successful at predicting human behavior. Therefore, the Smith theory of behavior, no matter how elegant or complex, ought to be abandoned in favor of these other theories.

    Which of the following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

    1. The Smith theory has led to intriguing predictions, which have been shown to be false, about the causes of human behavior.
    2. A psychological theory with greater predictive success than another is scientifically preferable.
    3. The Smith theory has had remarkable success in predicting how people will behave in certain situations.
    4. Measuring the predictive success of a psychological theory always involves considering other theories that attempt to explain the same phenomena.
    5. Scientific theories become impractical if they posit causal mechanisms beyond a certain level of complexity.
  7. A wildlife expert predicts that the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park would have failed if the wolves traveled beyond the borders of the park onto privately owned land.
    1. would have failed if the wolves traveled
    2. will fail if the wolves travel
    3. will have failed if the wolves begin traveling
    4. has failed because the wolves traveling
    5. should be failing if the wolves traveling
  8. Joy took voice lessons last year, and she has been singing in the choir ever since.
    1. and she has been singing in the choir ever since
    2. and since then on she has been singing in the choir
    3. when ever since she sings in the choir
    4. she has been singing in the choir since then
    5. and she sings in the choir since then
  9. New studies indicate that, if they have a strong support group, people succeed in their attempts to quit smoking.
    1. New studies indicate that, if they have a strong support group, people succeed in their attempts to quit smoking.
    2. New studies indicate that, if they succeed in their attempts to quit smoking, people have a strong support group.
    3. New studies indicate that, if people have a strong support group, they succeed in their attempts to quit smoking.
    4. If people have a strong support group, new studies, they indicate that they succeed in their attempts to quit smoking.
    5. A strong support group, new studies indicate, if they have one, people succeed in their attempts to quit smoking.
  10. As Earth’s fifth largest continent, Antarctica has a smaller land mass than North America, yet contains 70 percent of Earth’s fresh water resources.
    1. As Earth’s fifth largest continent,
    2. As Earth’s fifth largest, continent,
    3. As the fifth largest continent on Earth;
    4. As the fifth, largest, continent of Earth,
    5. Due to it being Earth’s fifth largest continent,

Questions 29–32 are based on the following passage.

Adapted from Theodore Roosevelt and His Times, by Harold Howland © 1912.

Line       There is a line of Browning’s that should stand as an epitaph for Theodore
      Roosevelt: “I WAS EVER A FIGHTER.” That was the essence of the man, the keynote
      of his career. He met everything in life with a challenge. If it was righteous, he fought
      for it; if it was evil, he hurled the full weight of his finality against it. He never capitulated,
(5)   never sidestepped, never fought foul. He carried the fight to the enemy.
           His first fight was for health and bodily vigor. It began at the age of nine.
      Physically he was a weakling, his thin and ill-developed body racked with asthma. But it
      was only the physical power that was wanting, never the intellectual or the spiritual. He 
      owed to his father, the first Theodore, the wise counsel that launched him on his deter-
(10)  mined contest against ill health. On the third floor of the house on East Twentieth
      Street in New York where he was born, October 27, 1858, his father had constructed an
      outdoor gymnasium. It was an impressive moment, Roosevelt used to say in later years,
      when his father first led him into that gymnasium and said to him, “Theodore, you have
      the brains, but brains are of comparatively little use without the body; you have got to
(15)  make your body, and it lies with you to make it. It’s dull, hard work, but you can do it.”
      The boy knew that his father was right, and so he took up the drudgery of daily, monotonous
      exercise with bars and rings and weights.
           All through his boyhood, the young Theodore Roosevelt kept up his fight for
      strength. He was too delicate to attend school, and was taught by private tutors in the
(20)  city. He spent many of his summers, and sometimes some of the winter months, in the
      woods of Maine. These outings he thoroughly enjoyed, but it is certain that the main
      motive which sent him into the rough life of the woods to hunt and trap, to paddle and 
      row and swing an axe, was the obstinate determination to make himself physically fit.
           His fight for bodily power went on through his college years at Harvard and
(25)  during the years that he spent in ranch life in the West. He was always intensely interested
      in boxing, although he was never of anything like championship caliber in the
      ring. His first impulse to learn to defend himself with his hands had a characteristic
      birth.
           During one of his periodical attacks of asthma, he was sent alone to pristine
(30)  Moosehead Lake in Maine for relief. On the last stage of the journey, he met two boys
      of about his own age. They quickly found, he says, in his autobiography, that he was “a
      foreordained and predestined victim” for their rough teasing, and they “industriously
      proceeded to make life miserable” for their fellow traveler. At last young Roosevelt
      could endure their persecutions no longer, and tried to fight. Great was his discomfiture
(35)  when he discovered that either of them alone could handle him “with easy contempt.”
      They hurt him little, but, what was doubtless far more humiliating, they prevented him
      from doing any damage whatever in return.
           The experience taught the boy, better than any good advice could have done, that
      he must learn to defend himself. Since he had little natural prowess, he realized that he
(40)  must supply its place by training. He secured his father’s approval for a course of boxing 
      lessons, upon which he entered at once. He has described himself as a “painfully slow
      and awkward pupil,” who worked for two or three years before he made any perceptible
      progress.
  1. The author’s main point is that
    1. Theodore Roosevelt ultimately learned to defend himself in the boxing ring.
    2. Theodore Roosevelt’s physical shortcomings should have been more closely evaluated by his parents.
    3. Theodore Roosevelt’s tenacity allowed him to overcome the problems he faced because of his poorly developed physique.
    4. Theodore Roosevelt underwent years of physical therapy to become a healthy, active adult.
    5. Theodore Roosevelt’s inability to protect himself against physical attack lead to his almost constant persecution.
  2. Which of the following can be inferred about Theodore Roosevelt from information in the third paragraph?
    1. He was stubborn and perseverant.
    2. He was completely self-sufficient as a boy.
    3. He was too weak to be on his own.
    4. He was motivated by fear and self-loathing.
    5. He was privileged and spoiled.
  3. In using the word discomfiture (line 34), the author most clearly conveys
    1. Roosevelt’s ambivalence toward his failure to defend himself
    2. Roosevelt’s concern that his physical limitations would place him in jeopardy
    3. sympathy for the boys who would most likely suffer at Roosevelt’s hands
    4. appreciation of Roosevelt’s strength and determination
    5. denial of any problems between Roosevelt and the boys he met on his journey
  4. The passage suggests which of the following about Roosevelt’s response to his father’s construction of an outdoor gymnasium?
    1. Roosevelt was thrilled with the opportunity to improve upon his physical appearance.
    2. Roosevelt rejected his father’s attempt to help, and subsequently moved to Maine.
    3. Roosevelt enthusiastically supported his father’s idea.
    4. Roosevelt was disappointed that he could not utilize the gymnasium to its fullest extent.
    5. Roosevelt appreciated his father’s guidance and took his father’s advice to heart.
  5. Jane and William will represent our school at the modern arts convention, for their creations have been outstanding this semester.
    1. convention, for their creations have been outstanding this semester
    2. convention, their creations in this having been outstanding this semester
    3. convention; their creations this semester have been outstanding
    4. convention; they having been outstanding in their creations this semester
    5. convention, for they have this semester done outstanding creations
  6. From 1999 to 2002 sales of new cars decreased as more preowned cars entered the market.
    1. From 1999 to 2002 sales of new cars decreased as more preowned cars entered the market.
    2. As more preowned cars entered the market, from 1999 to 2002 sales of new cars decreased.
    3. Occurring between 1999 and 2002, sales of new cars decreased and more preowned cars entered the market.
    4. More preowned cars entered the market between 1999 and 2002, the sales of new cars decreased.
    5. Decreased as more preowned cars entered the market the sales of new cars from 1999 to 2002.
  7. The volunteer committee, consisting of members of the community, and is funded by city taxes.
    1. committee, consisting of members of the community, and is funded by city taxes
    2. committee to consist of community members and to be funded by city taxes
    3. committee is funded by city taxes, it consists of community members
    4. committee, funded by city taxes, consisting of community members
    5. committee, consisting of community members, is funded by city taxes
  8. Business Analyst: In a recent survey, employees of Company X were asked to state which one of the following two scenarios they would prefer: (1) Company X is the industry leader with gross revenues of $100 million, and Company Y is second, with gross revenues of $90 million or (2) Company Y is the industry leader with gross revenues of $120 million and Company X is second, with gross revenues of $110 million. Despite the fact that under the scenario 2, Company X would have higher gross revenues than under scenario 1, the majority of respondents stated that they preferred scenario 1.

    Which of the following, if true, would most help to explain the surprising survey results described by the business analyst?

    1. Most employees of Company X believe that their company has a higher growth rate than Company Y.
    2. Most employees of Company X want their company to have gross revenues of more than $120 million.
    3. Most employees of Company X believe that their personal welfare is not connected to the company’s gross revenues.
    4. Most employees of Company X want their company to be more powerful than Company Y.
    5. Most employees of Company X want their company to make products of the highest quality.
  9. Physician: Research has shown that substance X causes cancer in rabbits. Even though similar research has never been done on humans, and probably never will be, the use of substance X should be banned.

    That substance X causes cancer in rabbits figures in the argument in which of the following ways?

    1. It is presented as the hazard that the physician is concerned with preventing.
    2. It is presented as a benefit of not acting on the recommendation of that conclusion.
    3. It is presented as evidence for the claim that similar research will never be done on humans.
    4. It is presented as a finding that motivates the course of action advocated in the conclusion.
    5. It is presented as evidence for the claim that similar research has never been done on humans.
  10. Carrie: The title of the seminar we just attended, “Being a Good Husband,” is misleading. A title should describe all the contents of a seminar, but nearly half of this seminar was involved with discussing wives.

    Alan: I don’t think the title is misleading. It seems to me that husbands and wives are two sides of one relationship: marriage. One cannot be a husband without a wife.

    Which of the following is most strongly supported by the preceding discussion?

    1. Carrie believes that the seminar should have been entitled “Being a Good Wife.”
    2. Alan believes that no real distinction exists between the roles of husband and wife.
    3. Carrie and Alan disagree about the relevance of traditional marriage.
    4. Carrie and Alan disagree about the overall value of the seminar.
    5. Carrie believes that the seminar title should not mention husbands without mentioning wives.
  11. Frustration in response to insults is unreasonable, for insults are merely assertions that someone has undesirable characteristics. If such an assertion is false, the insulted party ought to pity the ignorance prompting the insult. If it is true, the insulted party should be thankful for such useful information.

    Which of the following, if assumed, enables the argument’s conclusion to be properly drawn?

    1. Actions prompted by ignorance warrant negative reactions.
    2. Frustration is a reasonable response to useful information.
    3. Frustration is an unreasonable response to any action that should prompt pity or gratitude.
    4. Gratitude and pity are reasonable responses to some forms of hostile or insensitive behavior.
    5. Pity is the only reasonable reaction to people with undesirable characteristics.
  12. The high school band traveled to Europe, playing concerts, studying with other students, and took in the beautiful scenery.
    1. took in the beautiful scenery
    2. taking in the beautiful scenery
    3. the beautiful scenery taking in
    4. the beautiful scenery they took in
    5. the beautiful scenery was taken in
  13. Obesity is more common among American teenagers now than ever before.
    1. than
    2. than it was
    3. than has been
    4. compared with
    5. in terms of
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