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Chapter Summary

This chapter covered a wide array of issues associated with workforce planning and employment. First discussed was the critical importance of these issues in today’s organizational environment, where the success of the organization is more and more dependent on the capabilities of its workforce. The complex maze of employment law, federal regulations, and precedent case law was discussed. Concepts associated with affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, and gender discrimination were introduced.

An organization must be able to forecast its needs for employees and then develop recruitment and selection programs to satisfy those needs. These processes were fully introduced and discussed. However, prior to recruiting and selecting employees for jobs, the organization must know what the functions of those jobs are and what kinds of employees—in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities—to place in them. This is accomplished through the process of job analysis. Processes and methods regarding job analysis were discussed.

Sometimes the organization might want to depart from the philosophy of having only full-time permanent employees on their roles and, instead, use a contingent workforce. The components of a contingent workforce and the strategic reasons for doing so were covered.

After an organization decides to hire an individual a number of potential options can be pursued that affect the employment situation, such as requirement for medical examinations, providing reimbursement for relocation expenses, formalizing the relationship through an employment contract, and so forth. These issues were also discussed briefly.

Although most of the discussion in this chapter assumes that the organization is adding to, or at least replacing, its workforce, that is not always the case. The concept of organizational exit and associated program considerations was introduced. Finally, workforce planning and employment activities generate huge amounts of paper and electronic data. Legal requirements for retention of this data were discussed in the final section of the chapter.

Key Terms

  • Core competency
  • Equal Pay Act (1963)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Protected classes
  • Business necessity
  • Bona fide occupational requirement
  • Executive Order 11246
  • Executive Order 11478
  • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
  • Consumer Credit Protection Act (1968)
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act (1970)
  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  • Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act (1974)
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)
  • Uniform Guidelines for Employee Selection Procedures (1978)
  • Disparate treatment
  • Adverse impact
  • Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)
  • Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (1988)
  • Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
  • Qualified individual
  • Reasonable accommodation
  • Fitness for duty exam
  • Civil Rights Act of 1991
  • Compensatory damages
  • Punitive damages
  • Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Act (1994)
  • Congressional Accountability Act (1995)
  • Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (2003)
  • Griggs v. Duke Power (1971)
  • McDonnell-Douglas Corp. v. Green (1973)
  • Abermarle Paper Company v. Moody (1975)
  • Chandler v. Roudebush (1976)
  • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
  • United Steelworkers v. Weber (1979)
  • Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson (1986)
  • Johnson v. Santa Clara County Transportation Agency (1987)
  • Martin v. Wilks (1988)
  • City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Company (1989)
  • Taxman v. Board of Education of Piscataway (1993)
  • Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc. (1993)
  • Hopwood v. State of Texas (1996)
  • Ocale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc. (1998)
  • Faragher v. City of Boca Raton (1998)
  • Ellerth v. Burlington Northern (1998)
  • Grutter v. Bollinger et al. (2003)
  • Gratz et al. v. Bollinger et al. (2003)
  • General Dynamics Land Systems, Inc. v. Cline (2004)
  • Affirmative action
  • Affirmative action plan
  • Reverse discrimination
  • Quota
  • Dismissal and notification of rights letter
  • Letter of determination
  • Right-to-sue letter
  • Sexual harassment
  • Quid pro quo
  • Hostile environment
  • Constructive discharge
  • Affirmative defense
  • Workforce planning
  • Trend analysis
  • Ratio analysis
  • Nominal group technique
  • Delphi technique
  • Yield rates
  • Job analysis
  • Job description
  • Job specifications
  • Recruitment
  • Job posting
  • Job bidding
  • Employment agencies
  • Contingency workforce
  • Professional employer organization
  • Offshoring
  • Selection
  • Placement
  • Person-job fit
  • Person-organization fit
  • Selection criteria
  • Predictor
  • Multiple hurdle approach
  • Compensatory approach
  • Prescreening
  • Assessment center
  • Structured interview
  • Directive interviews
  • Behavioral interview
  • Situational interview
  • Stress interview
  • Mass interview
  • 360° interview
  • Panel interview
  • Stereotyping
  • Employment offer
  • Employment contract
  • Attrition
  • Hiring freeze
  • Severance pay
  • Outplacement services
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