Network QoS is a dauntingly complex subject, given that it straddles a broad range of technologies from OSI layer 1 upward. However, its deployment can be broken down into less-complex elements and processes: network engineering, traffic engineering, QoS technologies, and network operation. These processes are typically iterative in nature, all the more so as real-time network services become the norm. While the division into these steps may seem an oversimplification of the QoS area, it allows non-experts at least to ponder the elements. If NMS products are engineered to implement and automate the nitty-gritty details, the industry will be able to look forward to better levels of interoperability, finer degrees of control over end-user traffic, and ultimately lower prices for consumers.