This chapter explored network models, specifically the OSI 7-layer model and the TCP/IP 5-layer model. Having contrasted the models, it should be apparent that OSI is a generic model in contrast to the TCP/IP model, which is specifically aimed at the TCP/IP family of protocols. An examination of the protocol stack revealed a hierarchical approach to network management and a modular approach to protocol implementation and design. The five layers of the TCP/IP model were examined and the main network protocols at each layer introduced. A discussion of peer-to-peer communications described how the communicating protocols or applications are considered peers when they are both functioning at the same layer in the stack.
Finally, we provided a tabular summary of relevant protocols and applications that function at various layers of the protocol stack, listed by RFC, protocol, description, and the chapter of this book that discusses them.