- 1 Evolution of Mobile Cellular Networks
- 2 Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
- 3 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
- 4 Personal Communications Services (PCSs)
- 5 Wireless LANs (WLANS)
- 6 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)
- 7 IMT2000
- 8 IS-95, cdmaOne and cdma2000 Evolution
- 9 Organization of this Book
1.8 IS-95, cdmaOne and cdma2000 Evolution
The IS-959 air interface was standardized by TIA in July 1993. Networks that utilize IS-95 CDMA10 air interface and the ANSI-41 network protocol are known as cdmaOne networks. IS-95 networks use one or more 1.25 MHz carriers and operate within the 800 and 1900 MHz frequency bands.
Following the launch of the first cdmaOne network in Hong Kong in 1995, the number of cdmaOne subscribers has grown into millions. cdmaOne networks provide soft handoffs and higher capacity than traditional AMPS networks, with data rates up to 14.4 kbps. CdmaOne is based on IS-95A technology. IS-95B improves this technology further by providing higher data rates for packet- and circuit-switched CDMA data, with data rates up to 115 kbps.
This evolution continues with cdma2000, which is the third generation version of IS-95. This new standard is developed to support third generation services as defined by ITU. cdma2000 is divided into two parts, namely: (a) IS-2000/cdma200 1X, and (b) IS-2000A/cdma2000 3X. cdma2000 1X standard delivers twice the voice capacity of cdmaOne with a data rate of 144 kbps. The term 1X, as derived from 1XRTT (radio transmission technology), is used to signify that the standard carrier on the air interface is 1.25 MHz, which is similar to IS-95A and IS-95B. In cdma2000 3x, the term 3X, derived from 3XRTT, is used to signify three times 1.25 MHz, i.e., 3.75 MHz. cdma2000 3X offers greater capacity than 1X with data rates up to 2 Mbps while retaining backward compatibility with earlier 1X and cdmaOne deployments.
Lately, 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)11 is formed to defined standards for third generation all-IP networks. It is also responsible for the production of globally applicable technical specifications and reports for a 3G mobile system based on evolved GSM core networks and the radio access technologies that they support (i.e., Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) modes).