- 1 Evolution of Mobile Cellular Networks
- 2 Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
- 3 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
- 4 Personal Communications Services (PCSs)
- 5 Wireless LANs (WLANS)
- 6 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)
- 7 IMT2000
- 8 IS-95, cdmaOne and cdma2000 Evolution
- 9 Organization of this Book
1.3 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
The GSM general packet radio service (GPRS) is a data overlay over the voice-based GSM cellular network. It consists of a packet wireless access network and an IP-based backbone. GPRS is designed to transmit small amounts of frequently sent data or large amounts of infrequently sent data. GPRS has been seen as an evolution toward UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems). Users can access IP services via GPRS/GSM networks.
GPRS services include both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications. The network architecture of GPRS is shown in Figure 1.3. Gateway GSN (GGSN) nodes provide interworking functions with external packet-switched networks. A serving GPRS support node (SGSN), on the other hand, keeps track of an individual mobile station's location and provides security and access control. As shown in Figure 1.3, base stations (BSSs) are connected to SGSNs, which are subsequently connected to the backbone network. SGSNs interact with MSCs and various databases to support mobility management functions. The BSSs provide wireless access through a TDMA MAC protocol. Both the mobile station (MS) and SGSNs execute the SNDCP (Subnetwork-Dependent Convergence Protocol), which is responsible for compression/decompression and segmentation and reassembly of traffic. The SGSNs and GGSNs execute the GTP (GPRS Tunnelling Protocol), which allows the forwarding of packets between an external public data networks (PDN) and mobile unit (MU). It also allows multiprotocol packets to be tunneled through the GPRS backbone.
Figure 1.3. Architecture of GSM general packet radio service.