Other Race Conditions
Security-critical race conditions do not only occur in file accesses. They show up frequently in other kinds of complex systems. For example, consider a payment system for e-commerce that uses multiple back-end databases for the sake of efficiency. The databases each contain account information for users, which needs to stay in sync. Consider an attacker with a $100 credit. After the credit is spent, all copies of the database need to be updated, so the attacker can't connect to a different database and spend $100 more.
The way that this is done in many applications is by sending data from one server to the others when one server performs an update of data. Or, perhaps we could just send a request to lock a particular row until the databases are less busy and can synchronize. Such a lock would require all requests for the particular row to go to the database that handled the original request.
The problem with this solution is that after an attacker spends his money, there is a small time window during which the attacker can connect to other databases and spend the same money a second time. In this case, some sort of locking mechanism needs to be in place. One possible solution would be to use an additional database not used by the normal customer that is responsible for keeping track of which database has current information on a particular user.
As another example, let's examine the Java 2 systemin particular, the interplay between policy (set ultimately by the user of a Java program) and the program itself. A Java 2 developer is at liberty to request access to particular system resources. (Note that some of this access is likely to be potentially dangerous.) A Java 2 user is at liberty to deny or allow access based on the level of trust in the identity of the code (who signed it and where it came from).
The Java 2 security model is much more sophisticated than the security model found in original versions of Java. At the core, security is still directly reliant on type safety and mediated access to potentially dangerous operating system activities. But the black-and-white "sandbox" of the early Java days based on assigning complete trust or complete skepticism is now flexibly tunable in Java 2. A sophisticated user can set policy in such a way that certain kinds of code are allowed very specific access to particular system resources.
Such power, of course, comes at a price. Setting Java 2 policy is tedious and difficult, so much so that sophisticated use of the Java 2 security model has not been widely adopted.
One of the problems with Java 2 policy is that policy in its default form (although flexible before it is instantiated) is static once it gets set. The JVM, which enforces the policy through stack inspection and other means, reads a policy file and instantiates it as a set of objects when it starts to run. This policy cannot be changed on the fly. The only way to change Java 2 policy is to restart the JVM.
Security researchers have begun to suggest ways in which policy may be reset during the execution of a particular JVM. Here is where we get back around to race conditions.
One problem with setting policy on the fly is that Java is a multithread environment. What this means is that more than one process or subprocess is often interweaved as the JVM does its work. This is the property that allows Java to play a sound file at the same time it displays a video of dancing pigs on your favorite Web site! But a multiprocess environment is, by its very nature, susceptible to race conditions.
One early research prototype suggested a way of updating policy on the fly as a JVM runs. Unfortunately, the designers forgot about race conditions. The system presented a straightforward way of removing old policy and installing new policy, but there was a central assumption lurking behind the scenes of which attackers could take advantage. The unstated idea was that nothing could happen between the policy deletion operation and the policy creation operation. This assumption is not easy to guarantee in a multithread system like Java. The design was quite susceptible to a race condition attack, and needed to be fixed.