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Where the Activity Occurs

One potentially useful and clarifying way of looking at project management activity and lifecycle phases is to identify where the activity occurs.

Management Process Activity occurs in only two Process Groups in five of the Knowledge Areas, as shown in the following charts.

Project Scope Management

Planning Process Group

5.1 Plan Scope Management

5.2 Collect Requirements

5.3 Define Scope

5.4 Create WBS

Monitoring and Controlling

5.5 Validate Scope

Process Group

5.6 Control Scope

Project Time Management

Planning Process Group

6.1 Plan Schedule Management

6.2 Define Activities

6.3 Sequence Activities

6.4 Estimate Activity Resource

6.5 Estimate Activity Durations

6.6 Develop Schedule

Monitoring and Controlling

6.7 Control Schedule

Process Group

Project Cost Management

Planning Process Group

7.1 Plan Cost Management

7.2 Estimate Costs

7.3 Determine Budgets

Monitoring and Controlling

7.4 Control Costs

Process Group

Project Human Resource Management

Planning Process Group

9.1 Plan Human Resource

Management

Executing Process Group

9.2 Acquire Project Team

9.3 Develop Project Team

9.4 Manage Project Team

Project Risk Management

Planning Process Group

11.1 Plan Risk Management

11.2 Identify Risks

11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

11.5 Plan Risk Responses

Monitoring and Controlling

11.6 Control Risks

Process Group

Management Process Activity occurs in three Process Groups in two of the Knowledge Areas.

Project Quality Management

Planning Process Group

8.1 Plan Quality Management

Executing Process Group

8.2 Perform Quality Assurance

Monitoring and Controlling

8.3 Control Quality

Process Group

Project Communications Management

Planning Process Group

10.1 Plan Communications Management

Executing Process Group

10.2 Manage Communications

Monitoring and Controlling

10.3 Control Communications

Process Group

Two of the Knowledge Areas have Management Process Activity occurring in four Process Groups.

Project Procurement Management

Planning Process Group

12.1 Plan Procurement Management

Executing Process Group

12.2 Conduct Procurements

Monitoring and Controlling

12.3 Control Procurements

Process Group

Closing Process Group

12.4 Close Procurements

Project Stakeholder Management

Initiating Process Group

13.1 Identify Stakeholders

Planning Process Group

13.2 Plan Stakeholder Management

Executing Process Group

13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement

Monitoring and Controlling

13.4 Control Stakeholder

Process Group

Engagement

And one Knowledge Area has Management Process Activity occurring in all five Process Groups.

Project Procurement Management

Initiating Process Group

4.1 Develop Project Charter

Planning Process Group

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan

Executing Process Group

4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work

Monitoring and Controlling

4.4 Monitor and Control

Process Group

Project Work

4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control

Closing Process Group

4.6 Close Project or Phase

Conversely, one—and only one—Process Group has Management Process Activity in all ten Knowledge Areas: the Planning Process Group. Judging simply on the basis of Management Process Activity, the Process Planning Group and the Project Integration Management Knowledge Area seem to hold the most challenge and opportunity to achieve a successful outcome. Figure 1.6 illustrates the relative frequency of the management processes within the process groups.

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.6 Pareto chart of the 47 management processes

This reflects my personal experience in project management. For instance, some team members are only present at the beginning of the project and serve only on the team that develops the project charter. This is important—critical even—to the project, but they make their contributions in this one area and have no further (or very limited) involvement in the remainder of the project.

Although we must be careful to avoid making unfounded assumptions, it is clear that with over 50% of the Management Process Activity occurring in the Planning Process Group, planning is critical to the successful outcome of any project. I think few experienced Project Management Professionals would take exception to this statement.

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