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Introduction to OpenGL ES 3.0

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This chapter is from the book
The authors of OpenGL ES 3.0 Programming Guide, 2nd Edition introduce this API for advanced 3D graphics targeted at handheld and embedded devices, including what's new in OpenGL ES 3.0, backward compatibility, EGL, EGL and OpenGL ES command syntax, error handling, and basic state management.

OpenGL for Embedded Systems (OpenGL ES) is an application programming interface (API) for advanced 3D graphics targeted at handheld and embedded devices. OpenGL ES is the dominant graphics API in today’s smartphones and has even extended its reach onto the desktop. The list of platforms supporting OpenGL ES includes iOS, Android, BlackBerry, bada, Linux, and Windows. OpenGL ES also underpins WebGL, a web standard for browser-based 3D graphics.

Since the release of the iPhone 3GS in June 2009 and Android 2.0 in March 2010, OpenGL ES 2.0 has been supported on iOS and Android devices. The first edition of this book covered OpenGL ES 2.0 in detail. The current edition focuses on OpenGL ES 3.0, the next revision of OpenGL ES. It is almost inevitable that every handheld platform that continues to evolve will support OpenGL ES 3.0. Indeed, OpenGL ES 3.0 is already supported on devices using Android 4.3+ and on the iPhone 5s with iOS7. OpenGL ES 3.0 is backward compatible with OpenGL ES 2.0, meaning that applications written for OpenGL ES 2.0 will continue to work with OpenGL ES 3.0.

OpenGL ES is one of a set of APIs created by the Khronos Group. The Khronos Group, founded in January 2000, is a member-funded industry consortium that is focused on the creation of open standard and royalty-free APIs. The Khronos Group also manages OpenGL, a cross-platform standard 3D API for desktop systems running Linux, various flavors of UNIX, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. It is a widely accepted standard 3D API that has seen significant real-world usage.

Due to the widespread adoption of OpenGL as a 3D API, it made sense to start with the desktop OpenGL API in developing an open standard 3D API for handheld and embedded devices and then modify it to meet the needs and constraints of the handheld and embedded device space. In the earlier versions of OpenGL ES (1.0, 1.1, and 2.0), the device constraints that were considered in the design included limited processing capabilities and memory availability, low memory bandwidth, and sensitivity to power consumption. The working group used the following criteria in the definition of the OpenGL ES specification(s):

  • The OpenGL API is very large and complex, and the goal of the OpenGL ES working group was to create an API suitable for constrained devices. To achieve this goal, the working group removed any redundancy from the OpenGL API. In any case where the same operation could be performed in more than one way, the most useful method was taken and the redundant techniques were removed. A good example of this is seen with specifying geometry, where in OpenGL an application can use immediate mode, display lists, or vertex arrays. In OpenGL ES, only vertex arrays exist; immediate mode and display lists were removed.
  • Removing redundancy was an important goal, but maintaining compatibility with OpenGL was also important. As much as possible, OpenGL ES was designed so that applications written to the embedded subset of functionality in OpenGL would also run on OpenGL ES. This was an important goal because it allows developers to leverage both APIs and to develop applications and tools that use the common subset of functionality.
  • New features were introduced to address specific constraints of handheld and embedded devices. For example, to reduce the power consumption and increase the performance of shaders, precision qualifiers were introduced to the shading language.
  • The designers of OpenGL ES aimed to ensure a minimum set of features for image quality. In early handheld devices, the screen sizes were limited, making it essential that the quality of the pixels drawn on the screen was as good as possible.
  • The OpenGL ES working group wanted to ensure that any OpenGL ES implementation would meet certain acceptable and agreed-on standards for image quality, correctness, and robustness. This was achieved by developing appropriate conformance tests that an OpenGL ES implementation must pass to be considered compliant.

Khronos has released four OpenGL ES specifications so far: OpenGL ES 1.0 and ES 1.1 (referred to jointly as OpenGL ES 1.x in this book), OpenGL ES 2.0, and OpenGL ES 3.0. The OpenGL ES 1.0 and 1.1 specifications implement a fixed function pipeline and are derived from the OpenGL 1.3 and 1.5 specifications, respectively.

The OpenGL ES 2.0 specification implements a programmable graphics pipeline and is derived from the OpenGL 2.0 specification. Being derived from a revision of the OpenGL specification means that the corresponding OpenGL specification was used as the baseline for determining the feature set included in the particular revision of OpenGL ES.

OpenGL ES 3.0 is the next step in the evolution of handheld graphics and is derived from the OpenGL 3.3 specification. While OpenGL ES 2.0 was successful in bringing capabilities similar to DirectX9 and the Microsoft Xbox 360 to handheld devices, graphics capabilities have continued to evolve on desktop GPUs. Significant features that enable techniques such as shadow mapping, volume rendering, GPU-based particle animation, geometry instancing, texture compression, and gamma correction were missing from OpenGL ES 2.0. OpenGL ES 3.0 brings these features to handheld devices, while continuing the philosophy of adapting to the constraints of embedded systems.

Of course, some of the constraints that were taken into consideration while designing previous versions of OpenGL ES are no longer relevant today. For example, handheld devices now feature large screen sizes (some offer a higher resolution than most desktop PC monitors). Additionally, many handheld devices now feature high-performance multicore CPUs and large amounts of memory. The focus for the Khronos Group in developing OpenGL ES 3.0 shifted toward appropriate market timing of features relevant to handheld applications rather than addressing the limited capabilities of devices.

The following sections introduce the OpenGL ES 3.0 pipeline.

OpenGL ES 3.0

As noted earlier, OpenGL ES 3.0 is the API covered in this book. Our goal is to cover the OpenGL ES 3.0 specification in thorough detail, give specific examples of how to use the features in OpenGL ES 3.0, and discuss various performance optimization techniques. After reading this book, you should have an excellent grasp of the OpenGL ES 3.0 API, be able to easily write compelling OpenGL ES 3.0 applications, and not have to worry about reading multiple specifications to understand how a feature works.

OpenGL ES 3.0 implements a graphics pipeline with programmable shading and consists of two specifications: the OpenGL ES 3.0 API specification and the OpenGL ES Shading Language 3.0 Specification (OpenGL ES SL). Figure 1-1 shows the OpenGL ES 3.0 graphics pipeline. The shaded boxes in this figure indicate the programmable stages of the pipeline in OpenGL ES 3.0. An overview of each stage in the OpenGL ES 3.0 graphics pipeline is presented next.

Figure 1-1

Figure 1-1 OpenGL ES 3.0 Graphics Pipeline

Vertex Shader

This section gives a high-level overview of vertex shaders. Vertex and fragment shaders are covered in depth in later chapters. The vertex shader implements a general-purpose programmable method for operating on vertices.

The inputs to the vertex shader consist of the following:

  • Shader program—Vertex shader program source code or executable that describes the operations that will be performed on the vertex.
  • Vertex shader inputs (or attributes)—Per-vertex data supplied using vertex arrays.
  • Uniforms—Constant data used by the vertex (or fragment) shader.
  • Samplers—Specific types of uniforms that represent textures used by the vertex shader.

The outputs of the vertex shader were called varying variables in OpenGL ES 2.0, but were renamed vertex shader output variables in OpenGL ES 3.0. In the primitive rasterization stage, the vertex shader output values are calculated for each generated fragment and are passed in as inputs to the fragment shader. The mechanism used to generate a value for each fragment from the vertex shader outputs that is assigned to each vertex of the primitive is called interpolation. Additionally, OpenGL ES 3.0 adds a new feature called transform feedback, which allows the vertex shader outputs to be selectively written to an output buffer (in addition to, or instead of, being passed to the fragment shader). For example, as covered in the transform feedback example in Chapter 14, a particle system can be implemented in the vertex shader in which particles are output to a buffer object using transform feedback. The inputs and outputs of the vertex shader are shown in Figure 1-2.

Figure 1-2

Figure 1-2 OpenGL ES 3.0 Vertex Shader

Vertex shaders can be used for traditional vertex-based operations such as transforming the position by a matrix, computing the lighting equation to generate a per-vertex color, and generating or transforming texture coordinates. Alternatively, because the vertex shader is specified by the application, vertex shaders can be used to perform custom math that enables new transforms, lighting, or vertex-based effects not allowed in more traditional fixed-function pipelines.

Example 1-1 shows a vertex shader written using the OpenGL ES shading language. We explain vertex shaders in significant detail later in the book. We present this shader here just to give you an idea of what a vertex shader looks like. The vertex shader in Example 1-1 takes a position and its associated color data as input attributes, transforms the position using a 4 × 4 matrix, and outputs the transformed position and color.

Example 1-1 A Vertex Shader Example

1.   #version 300 es
2.   uniform mat4 u_mvpMatrix; // matrix to convert a_position
3.                             // from model space to normalized
4.                             // device space
5.   
6.   // attributes input to the vertex shader
7.   in vec4 a_position;       // position value
8.   in vec4 a_color;          // input vertex color
9.
10.  // output of the vertex shader - input to fragment
11.  // shader
12.  out vec4 v_color;         // output vertex color
13.  void main()
14.  {
15.     v_color = a_color;
16.     gl_Position = u_mvpMatrix * a_position;
17.  }

Line 1 provides the version of the Shading Language—information that must appear on the first line of the shader (#version 300 es indicates the OpenGL ES Shading Language v3.00). Line 2 describes a uniform variable u_mvpMatrix that stores the combined model view and projection matrix. Lines 7 and 8 describe the inputs to the vertex shader and are referred to as vertex attributes. a_position is the input vertex position attribute and a_color is the input vertex color attribute. On line 12, we declare the output v_color to store the output of the vertex shader that describes the per-vertex color. The built-in variable called gl_Position is declared automatically, and the shader must write the transformed position to this variable. A vertex or fragment shader has a single entry point called the main function. Lines 13–17 describe the vertex shader main function. In line 15, we read the vertex attribute input a_color and write it as the vertex output color v_color. In line 16, the transformed vertex position is output by writing it to gl_Position.

Primitive Assembly

After the vertex shader, the next stage in the OpenGL ES 3.0 graphics pipeline is primitive assembly. A primitive is a geometric object such as a triangle, line, or point sprite. Each vertex of a primitive is sent to a different copy of the vertex shader. During primitive assembly, these vertices are grouped back into the primitive.

For each primitive, it must be determined whether the primitive lies within the view frustum (the region of 3D space that is visible on the screen). If the primitive is not completely inside the view frustum, it might need to be clipped to the view frustum. If the primitive is completely outside this region, it is discarded. After clipping, the vertex position is converted to screen coordinates. A culling operation can also be performed that discards primitives based on whether they face forward or backward. After clipping and culling, the primitive is ready to be passed to the next stage of the pipeline—the rasterization stage.

Rasterization

The next stage, shown in Figure 1-3, is the rasterization phase, where the appropriate primitive (point sprite, line, or triangle) is drawn. Rasterization is the process that converts primitives into a set of two-dimensional fragments, which are then processed by the fragment shader. These two-dimensional fragments represent pixels that can be drawn on the screen.

Figure 1-3

Figure 1-3 OpenGL ES 3.0 Rasterization Stage

Fragment Shader

The fragment shader implements a general-purpose programmable method for operating on fragments. As shown in Figure 1-4, this shader is executed for each generated fragment by the rasterization stage and takes the following inputs:

  • Shader program—Fragment shader program source code or executable that describes the operations that will be performed on the fragment.
  • Input variables—Outputs of the vertex shader that are generated by the rasterization unit for each fragment using interpolation.
  • Uniforms—Constant data used by the fragment (or vertex) shader.
  • Samplers—Specific types of uniforms that represent textures used by the fragment shader.
Figure 1-4

Figure 1-4 OpenGL ES 3.0 Fragment Shader

The fragment shader can either discard the fragment or generate one or more color values referred to as outputs. Typically, the fragment shader outputs just a single color value, except when rendering to multiple render targets (see the section Multiple Render Targets in Chapter 11); in the latter case, a color value is output for each render target. The color, depth, stencil, and screen coordinate location (xw, yw) generated by the rasterization stage become inputs to the per-fragment operations stage of the OpenGL ES 3.0 pipeline.

Example 1-2 describes a simple fragment shader that can be coupled with the vertex shader described in Example 1-1 to draw a Gouraud-shaded triangle. Again, we will go into much more detail on fragment shaders later in the book. We present this example just to give you a basic idea of what a fragment shader looks like.

Example 1-2 A Fragment Shader Example

1.  #version 300 es
2.  precision mediump float;
3.  
4.  in vec4 v_color;    // input vertex color from vertex shader
5.
6.  out vec4 fragColor; // output fragment color
7.  void main()
8.  {
9.     fragColor = v_color;
10. }

Just as in the vertex shader, line 1 provides the version of the Shading Language; this information must appear on the first line of the fragment shader (#version 300 es indicates the OpenGL ES Shading Language v3.00). Line 2 sets the default precision qualifier, which is explained in detail in Chapter 4, “Shaders and Programs.” Line 4 describes the input to the fragment shader. The vertex shader must write out the same set of variables that are read in by the fragment shader. Line 6 provides the declaration for the output variable of the fragment shader, which will be the color passed on to the next stage. Lines 7–10 describe the fragment shader main function. The output color is set to the input color v_color. The inputs to the fragment shader are linearly interpolated across the primitive before being passed into the fragment shader.

Per-Fragment Operations

After the fragment shader, the next stage is per-fragment operations. A fragment produced by rasterization with (xw, yw) screen coordinates can only modify the pixel at location (xw, yw) in the framebuffer. Figure 1-5 describes the OpenGL ES 3.0 per-fragment operations stage.

Figure 1-5

Figure 1-5 OpenGL ES 3.0 Per-Fragment Operations

During the per-fragment operations stage, the following functions (and tests) are performed on each fragment, as shown in Figure 1-5:

  • Pixel ownership test—This test determines whether the pixel at location (xw, yw) in the framebuffer is currently owned by OpenGL ES. This test allows the window system to control which pixels in the framebuffer belong to the current OpenGL ES context. For example, if a window displaying the OpenGL ES framebuffer window is obscured by another window, the windowing system may determine that the obscured pixels are not owned by the OpenGL ES context and, therefore, the pixels might not be displayed at all. While the pixel ownership test is part of OpenGL ES, it is not controlled by the developer, but rather takes place internally inside of OpenGL ES.
  • Scissor test—The scissor test determines whether (xw, yw) lies within the scissor rectangle defined as part of the OpenGL ES state. If the fragment is outside the scissor region, the fragment is discarded.
  • Stencil and depth tests—These tests are performed on the stencil and depth value of the incoming fragment to determine whether the fragment should be rejected.
  • Blending—Blending combines the newly generated fragment color value with the color values stored in the framebuffer at location (xw, yw).
  • Dithering—Dithering can be used to minimize the artifacts that occur as a result of using limited precision to store color values in the framebuffer.

At the end of the per-fragment stage, either the fragment is rejected or a fragment color(s), depth, or stencil value is written to the framebuffer at location (xw, yw). Writing of the fragment color(s), depth, and stencil values depends on whether the appropriate write masks are enabled. Write masks allow finer control over the color, depth, and stencil values written into the associated buffers. For example, the write mask for the color buffer could be set such that no red values are written into the color buffer. In addition, OpenGL ES 3.0 provides an interface to read back the pixels from the framebuffer.

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