- Introduction
- Understanding Formulas
- Creating a Simple Formula
- Creating a Formula Using Formula AutoComplete
- Editing a Formula
- Understanding Cell Referencing
- Using Absolute Cell References
- Using Mixed Cell References
- Using 3-D Cell References
- Naming Cells and Ranges
- Entering Named Cells and Ranges
- Managing Names
- Simplifying a Formula with Ranges
- Displaying Calculations with the Status Bar
- Calculating Totals with AutoSum
- Calculating Totals with Quick Analysis
- Performing One Time Calculations
- Converting Formulas and Values
- Correcting Calculation Errors
- Correcting Formulas
- Auditing a Worksheet
- Locating Circular References
- Performing Calculations Using Functions
- Creating Functions
- Creating Functions Using the Library
- Calculating Multiple Results
- Using Nested Functions
- Using Constants and Functions in Names

## Creating a Simple Formula

A **formula** calculates values to return a result. On an Excel worksheet, you can create a formula using values (such as 147 or $10.00), arithmetic operators (shown in the table), and cell references. An Excel formula always begins with the equal sign (=). The equal sign, when entered, automatically formats the cell as a formula entry. The best way to start a formula is to have an argument. An **argument** is the cell references or values in a formula that contribute to the result. Each function uses function-specific arguments, which may include numeric values, text values, cell references, ranges of cells, and so on. To accommodate long, complex formulas, you can resize the formula bar to prevent formulas from covering other data in your worksheet. By default, only formula results are displayed in a cell, but you can change the view of the worksheet to display formulas instead of results.

### Enter a Formula

- Click the cell where you want to enter a formula.
- Type = (an equal sign). If you do not begin with an equal sign, Excel will display, not calculate, the information you type.
Enter the first argument. An argument can be a number or a cell reference.

- Enter an arithmetic operator.
- Enter the next argument.
- Repeat steps 4 and 5 as needed to complete the formula.
- Click the
**Enter**button on the formula bar, or press Enter.Notice that the result of the formula appears in the cell (if you select the cell, the formula itself appears on the formula bar).

### Resize the Formula Bar

- To switch between expanding the formula box to three or more lines or collapsing it to one line, click the down/up arrow at the end of the formula bar. You can also press Ctrl+Shift+U.
- To precisely adjust the height of the formula box, point to the bottom of the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical double arrow, and then drag up or down, and then click the vertical double arrow or press Enter.
- To automatically fit the formula box to the number of lines of text in the active cell, point to the formula box until the pointer changes to a vertical double arrow, and then double-click the vertical arrow.

### Display Formulas in Cells

- Click the
**Formulas**tab. - Click the
**Show Formulas**button. - To turn off formula display, click the
**Show Formulas**button again.