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How TCP/IP Works

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Key Terms

Review the following list of key terms:

  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP): A protocol that resolves logical IP addresses to physical addresses.
  • Application layer: The layer of the TCP/IP stack that supports network applications and provides an interface to the local operating environment.
  • Datagram: The data package passed from the Internet layer to the Network Access layer, or a data package passed from UDP at the Transport layer to the Internet layer.
  • Frame: The data package created at the Network Access layer.
  • Header: A bundle of protocol information attached to the data at each layer of the protocol stack.
  • Internet layer: The layer of the TCP/IP stack that provides logical addressing and routing.
  • IP (Internet Protocol): The Internet layer protocol that provides logical addressing and routing capabilities.
  • Message: In TCP/IP networking, a message is the data package passed from the Application layer to the Transport layer. The term is also used generically to describe a message from one entity to another on the network. The term doesn’t always refer to an Application layer data package.
  • Network Access layer: The layer of the TCP/IP stack that provides an interface with the physical network.
  • Segment: The data package passed from TCP at the Transport layer to the Internet layer.
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): A reliable, connection-oriented protocol of the Transport layer.
  • Transport layer: The layer of the TCP/IP stack that provides error control and acknowledgment and serves as an interface for network applications.
  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol): An unreliable, connectionless protocol of the Transport layer.
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