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Endnotes

  1. dsonline.computer.org

  1. The term teleology, from philosophy, denotes the study of ultimate aim or purpose in nature. With respect to technology, we can use the term to mean the ultimate aim of technology insofar as it can be discerned.

  1. Arg!: a technical term from early email protocol; an emotive signifying frustration.

  1. xml.coverpages.org/MS-GlobalXMLWebServicesArchitecture.html

  1. Abraham H. Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being (Princeton, NJ: van Nostrand, 1968).

  1. Paul Watzlawick, Munchhausen's Pigtail or Psychotherapy and Reality (New York: Norton, 1990), p. 125.

  1. Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila, "The Semantic Web," Scientific American (May 2001).

  1. The basis for the U.S. government's suit against Microsoft.

  1. David Gelernter, Mirror Worlds (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

  1. Dallas Semiconductor.

  1. www.gigaspaces.com

  1. For a history of Napster, see Joseph Menn, All the Rave: The Rise and Fall of Shawn Fanning's Napster (New York: Crown Business, 2003).

  1. Jini network technology provides an interesting alternative to this traditional constraint, which is useful to consider as the idea of self-healing becomes more widely held in networks as well as within nodes.

  1. i3c.org

  1. From "Brief Timeline of the Internet" (http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/timeline.asp) "October 1, 1969: Second node installed at Stanford Research Institute; connected to a SDS 940 computer. The first ARPANet message sent: 'lo.' Trying to spell log-in, but the system crashed!"

  1. Wilfredo Torres-Pomales, "Software Fault Tolerance: A Tutorial," NASA/TM-2000-210615,

  1. Dhiraj K. Pradhan, Fault-Tolerant Computer System Design (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996).

  1. Brian Randell and Jie Xu, "The Evolution of the Recovery Block Concept," in Software Fault Tolerance, Michael R. Lyu, ed. (New York: Wiley, 1995).

  1. www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2828.txt

  1. Janet Raloff, "Languishing Languages: Cultures at Risk," Science News Online (February 25, 1995), http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_edpik/aa_1.htm

  1. The Java platform (which includes language specification and runtime virtual machine specification—hence, the Java "platform"—was invented by James Gosling of Sun Microsystems and announced by Sun in 1995.

  1. Duke, the Java mascot, emerged in the summer of 1992, when the Green Team—the pioneers at Sun who created the Java programming language—built a working demo of an interactive, hand-held home-entertainment device called the *7 ("Star 7"). The *7 featured Duke, an animated character who served as an agent for the user and who could interact with multiple objects on screen.

  1. www.beowulf.org

  1. Andrew S. Tanenbaum and Maarten van Steen, Distributed Systems, Principles and Paradigms (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002), p. 577.

  1. research.sun.com/techrep/1993/smli_tr_93-18.pdf

  1. The IBM PC wasn't the first personal computer, per se. But when IBM introduced the 5150 in August 1981, the PC era began in earnest.

  1. Generally, tax laws treat capital purchases and expenses differently. Capital purchases are items that must be depreciated over time, whereas expenses are generally deductible from income in the same year as expenditure. Capital purchases usually have a higher minimum amount associated with the purchase, for example, "all items under $5000 can be expensed."

  1. It can be argued that many PCs purchased during the 1980s were aspirational as opposed to functional. If I am a first-line manager, for example, and the manager in the cube next to mine has a PC, which is becoming something cool to have, then I too must have a PC.

  1. usinfo.state.gov/topical/global/ecom/01020603.htm

  1. Vector processors perform CPU-intensive calculations analogous to an assembly line. A central processor doles out the first unit of data, the second processor performs a calculation and hands the task to the next processor, and so on. Vector processing is well suited for problems that feature well-organized, parallelizable datasets, like calculation of weather patterns. For years all supercomputing was synonymous with vector processors.

  1. Multiple-instruction stream, multiple-data stream (MIMD) machines feature processors that function in an independent or asynchronous manner. SIMD architectures are more tightly coupled from a memory perspective and offer superior ability to manipulate vectors, offset by a disadvantageous approach to managing memory exchange.

  1. www.omg.org, www.microsoft.com/com/tech/DCOM.asp

  1. www.disi.unige.it/person/CazzolaW/, Walter Cazzola, Univ. of Genova, Italy, Dept. of Informatics and Computer Science.

  1. Java Core Reflection API Specification, java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/docs/guide/reflection/spec/java-reflection.doc.html

  1. www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/

  1. wavewireless.com

  1. C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell System Technical Journal 27 (July and October 1948): 379–423; 623–56.

  1. www.webopedia.com/quick-ref/OSI.Layers.asp

  1. http://www.2.cs.edu/~odyssey/

  1. research.microsoft.com/farsite

  1. Realtime applications can be classified as either hard or soft realtime. Hard realtime applications require a response to events within a predetermined amount of time for the application to function correctly. If a hard realtime application fails to meet specified deadlines, the application is considered to have failed. Soft realtime applications, however, do not necessarily fail if a deadline is missed. An example of a soft realtime application is an airline reservation system where temporal delays do not necessarily constitute failure, although a "reasonable" temporal component is implied.

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