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This chapter is from the book

Answers and Explanations

Objective 3.1: Devices

  1. a, b, and d. Firewalls, routers, and switches will help you protect critical resources and separate your LAN.

  2. b, c, and d. Access Point (AP) is a component of a wireless LAN.

  3. b. A switching hub is specially designed to forward packets to a specific port based on the packet's address.

Objective 3.1.1: Firewalls

  1. b. A firewall is best suited to protect resources and subnet your LAN directly on the network or gateway server.

  2. b and c. A firewall protects LAN resources from other networks.

  3. a, b, c, and d. All items listed are true about firewalls.

  4. a and b. Static packet filtering is less secure than stateful filtering, proxy filtering, or dynamic packet filtering.

  5. b and c. A packet filtering firewall operates at the Network or Transport layers.

  6. d. Firewalls are designed to perform all the functions listed except protect against viruses.

  7. b. Stateful firewalls may filter connection-oriented packets such as TCP.

  8. d. Proxy server runs an Application layer firewall using proxy software.

  9. b. A packet filtering firewall uses routers with packet filtering rules to allow or deny access based on source address, destination address, or port number.

  10. d. A stateful packet filtering firewall keeps track of the connection state.

Objective 3.1.2: Routers

  1. d. A multicast router discriminates between multicast and unicast packets and informs switching devices what to do with the multicast packet.

  2. a. The static router offers a stable table that you, as the network administrator, generate.

  3. a, b, and d. A dynamic router offers less security than a static router.

  4. a. Of the items listed, a static router is the most difficult to configure, but safest device to use on a LAN.

  5. a and d. Bridges connect two networks at the Data Link layer and routers connect two networks at the Network layer. Network spelled backward (kRowten) is similar to router with a silent k.

  6. b. My useful mnemonic for this is "A Priest Says To Never Delay Praying."

  7. b. Routers work at the Network layer. Network spelled backward (kRowten) is similar to Router with a silent k.

Objective 3.1.3: Switches

  1. b. A switch will meet your goals for this situation.

  2. b and d. Switches generally use Telnet or HTTP to manage interfaces and should be placed behind a dedicated firewall.

  3. b. A switching hub forwards packets to an appropriate port based on the packet's address.

Objective 3.1.4: Wireless

  1. a. Access point is a critical wireless device.

Objective 3.1.5: Modems

  1. a and b. The term modem stands for modulator and demodulator. Modems use telephone lines. DSL and cable modems are faster than 56 Kbps.

  2. a. Remote access without network administrator knowledge is the greatest security risk when dealing with modems.

Objective 3.1.6: RAS

  1. d. RAS stands for Remote Access Service.

  2. b, c, and d. A Remote Access Service (RAS) connection can be a dial-up connection or network connection using ISDN, DSL, VPN, or cable modem.

Objective 3.1.7: Telecom/PBX

  1. b and c. Recommend that user accounts be verified with strong authentication, remove the guest account, and create verifiable remote accounts.

  2. a and b. PBX stands for Private Branch Exchange, which allows for analog, digital, and data to transfer over a high-speed phone system.

Objective 3.1.8: VPN

  1. c. A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides for a private communication between two sites that also permits encryption and authorization.

  2. d. Diffie-Hellman provides Strong Authentication used to verify the VPN tunnel end points.

  3. c. DES performs fast data encryption and may be used with VPNs.

  4. b and d. IPSec and L2TP are protocols that work together to create a secure VPN connection.

Objective 3.1.9: IDS

  1. a. IDS stands for Intrusion Detection System.

  2. b. A network-based Intrusion Detection System monitors network traffic in real time.

  3. a. IDS is a security device that acts more like a detective rather than a preventative measure.

Objective 3.1.10: Network Monitoring/Diagnostic

  1. b. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used to monitor network devices such as hubs, switches, and routers.

  2. b. The IP header protocol field value of 1 = ICMP; 2 = IGMP; 6 = TCP; and 17 = UDP.

  3. d. The IP header protocol field value of 6 = TCP; 1 = ICMP; 2 = IGMP; and 17 = UDP.

Objective 3.1.11: Workstations

  1. d. Workstations are a source of security concern in a LAN.

  2. c. Desktop lockdown is the term used to prevent users from downloading software on company workstations.

Objective 3.1.12: Servers

  1. d. A server cluster is a group of independent servers that are grouped together to appear like one server.

  2. c and d. Workstations and servers have similar security concerns because they provide file sharing, network connection, and application services.

Objective 3.1.13: Mobile Devices

  1. b and c. A Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and pagers are examples of mobile devices.

  2. c. Mobile devices are smaller network devices, which are a security concern for network administrators because they are easily misplaced.

Objective 3.2: Media

  1. a, c, and d. Twisted pair, fiber optic, and coaxial are types of network cabling. Token ring is a type of physical topology.

  2. c. You use a crossover cable directly between two like components, like between two computers.

  3. d. CSMA represents Carrier Sense Multiple Access.

Objective 3.2.1: Coax

  1. a and b. Baseband and broadband are the two common types of coax cabling transmission methods.

  2. c. Of the choices listed for coax cabling, long distance is the best answer.

  3. b. Dual-shielded coax has two outer conductors, or shields, and offers greater resistance and decreased attenuation.

Objective 3.2.2: UTP/STP

  1. d. Category 4 UTP is used in token ring networks and can transmit data at speeds of up to 16 Mbps.

  2. d. Fiber optic cable carries signals as light waves.

  3. c. CAT 5 twisted-pair cabling is the media standard for most local network installations.

Objective 3.2.3: Fiber

  1. b. Fiber optic cabling transmits at faster speeds than copper cabling, is very resistant to interference, and carries signals as light waves.

  2. d. Fiber uses light to transmit data.

  3. a. Fiber is the best choice in this situation.

  4. d. Fiber protects against RF eavesdropping.

  5. d. Fiber is most resistant to electrical and noise interference.

  6. c. Fiber optic cable is a physical medium that is capable of conducting modulated light transmission.

  7. a. Fiber optic cable is the most reliable cable type, but it is also the most expensive to install and terminate.

Objective 3.2.4: Removable Media

  1. a. Making backup copies of data is the best way to avoid a catastrophic loss of computer data.

  2. a and c. Zip disks and floppy disks are magnetic storage media.

  3. c. DVD has the largest storage capacity for removable media.

Objective 3.2.4.1: Tape
  1. c and d. When using tape backup data re-entry may need to be performed after a crash and slow data transfer may occur during backups and restores.

  2. a. Magnetic tape is one of the oldest media designed to store data but should be carefully checked with antivirus software before restoration.

Objective 3.2.4.2: CDR
  1. d. CDR is one of the newest media designed to store data but should be carefully checked with antivirus software before restoration.

Objective 3.2.4.3: Hard Drives
  1. c. You should use a demagnetizer to demagnetize the hard disk.

  2. c. Multiple hard drives are used for fault tolerant RAID arrays.

Objective 3.2.4.4: Diskettes
  1. d. Diskettes are one of the greatest sources of viruses, which are also a small type of media that has traditionally been carried from one computer to another.

Objective 3.2.4.5: Flashcards
  1. a. Flashcards are also known as memory sticks.

Objective 3.2.4.6: Smartcards
  1. b. Smartcards provide secure, mobile storage of users' Private keys in a PKI.

  2. b. Smartcards are the most dependable authentication tool.

Objective 3.3: Security Topologies

  1. c. Ports 1024 to 49151. There are three accepted ranges for port numbers: the Well Known Ports, the Registered Ports, which are registered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and the Dynamic (Private) Ports.

Objective 3.3.1: Security Zones

  1. a, b, c, and d. All of the items listed are examples of security zones

Objective 3.3.1.1: DMZ
  1. a, c, and d. You should place your Web servers, FTP servers, and email servers within the DMZ. Web servers, FTP servers, and email servers are typically hosted within the DMZ.

Objective 3.3.1.2: Intranet
  1. c. An intranet is a security zone that is considered to be a private company network.

  2. a, c, and d. The Internet, not intranet, is designed to be publicly available.

Objective 3.3.1.3: Extranet
  1. c. Extranet is a security zone designed to allow one company to connect to another company through trust relationships and possible tunneling technology.

Objective 3.3.2: VLANs

  1. a, c, and d. A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) ties workstations together by functional department, same type of user, or primary application.

  2. b. A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) improves network performance by decreasing broadcast traffic and additionally reducing the chances that sniffing devices will compromise information.

  3. b. A VLAN will improve connectivity in this situation.

Objective 3.3.3: NAT

  1. a. Network Address Translation (NAT) offers a private addressing scheme for LAN users, hiding their IP addresses from the Internet.

  2. c. Network Address Translation (NAT) is relatively more secure than proxy, because it assigns private IP addresses to the client on your LAN, acting as a firewall.

  3. b. Network Address Translation (NAT) has the primary purpose to shield the IP addresses of the internal network from those outside of the network.

  4. a, b, and d. NAT translates private IP addresses into registered Internet IP addresses, allows for private addressing ranges for internal networks, and is designed to hide the true IP addresses of internal computer systems.

  5. a. The internal IP of 10.13.40.15 is an example of a private IP address reserved for internal networks, and not a valid address to use on the Internet. The Class A reserved addresses are 10.0.0.0–10.255.255.255.

  6. d. The internal IP of 172.16.12.5 is an example of a private IP address reserved for internal networks, and not a valid address to use on the Internet. The Class B reserved addresses are 172.16.0.0–172.31.255.255.

  7. b. The internal IP of 192.168.141.15 is an example of a private IP address reserved for internal networks, and not a valid address to use on the Internet. The Class C reserved addresses are 192.168.0.0–192.168.255.255.

Objective 3.3.4: Tunneling

  1. a and c. With tunneling, private network data, which is encapsulated or encrypted, is transmitted over a public network.

  2. b, c, and d. L2F, L2FP, and PPTP are used for VPN remote computing.

Objective 3.4: Intrusion Detection

  1. b. This is an example of a false positive result.

  2. b. The Kane Security Analyst (KSA) is a system security analyzer and assessment tool.

  3. c. Ping scanning sends an ICMP request to each IP address on a subnet and waits for replies.

  4. d. TCP half scanning relates to sending an initial SYN packet, receiving an ACK packet, and then immediately sending an RST packet.

  5. b. Audit trails are most useful when detecting intrusions to your network.

Objective 3.4.1: Network Based

  1. a. A network-based IDS is passive when it acquires data.

  2. a and b. A network-based IDS provides reliable, real-time intrusion data, remains passive and transparent on the network, and uses few network or host resources.

  3. a. The network-based IDS monitors network traffic in real time.

Objective 3.4.2: Host Based

  1. d. A host-based IDS can review computer system and event logs to detect a successful attack on a client computer.

Objective 3.4.2.2: Active Detection
  1. b and c. Active detection refers to an IDS that responds to the suspicious activity by logging off a user or one that reprograms the firewall to block the suspected source.

Objective 3.4.2.2: Passive Detection
  1. b and c. Passive detection refers to an IDS system that simply detects the potential security breach, logs a security breach, and raises an alert.

Objective 3.4.3: Honey Pots

  1. d. A honey pot is a computer configured as a sacrificial lamb so that administrators are aware when malicious attacks are in progress.

Objective 3.4.4: Incident Response

  1. b. An Incident Response is a written plan that indicates who will monitor these tools and how users should react once a malicious attack has occurred.

Objective 3.5: Security Baselines

  1. a. Security baselines relate to the fundamental principal of implementing security measures on computer equipment to ensure that minimum standards are being met.

Objective 3.5.1: OS/NOS Hardening (Concepts and Processes)

  1. b and d. To harden your NOS, check the manufacturer's Web site for any additional service patches for the NOS and disable any unused services.

Objective 3.5.1.1: File System
  1. d. New Technology File System (NTFS) allows for both file and folder level permissions.

  2. a. The command, chmod, allows you to change folder permissions on a Linux system.

  3. d. When a system file has become infected, you should consider restoring a clean version of a file from a backup.

Objective 3.5.1.2: Updates (Hotfixes, Service Packs, and Patches)
  1. b. You should install this update after you have tested the security patch to be safe on a nonproduction server.

Objective 3.5.2: Network Hardening

  1. d. NetBEUI should be denied passage over your firewall for security reasons.

Objective 3.5.2.1: Updates (Firmware)
  1. c. Debugging refers to actions taken by a programmer to fix logic errors in a program under development before actual production.

Objective 3.5.2.2: Configuration
  1. a and b. Configure ACL settings on select servers and disable unused services are appropriate steps to harden your network system.

Objective 3.5.2.2.1: Enabling and Disabling Services and Protocols
  1. a. When disabling services, verify the dependencies of all unused services before removing.

  2. a. FTP = ports 20 (data) and 21 (session), Telnet = port 23, SMTP = port 25, Wins replication = port 42, DNS = 53, bootp = 67, IIS Gopher = 70, HTTP = 80, pop3 = 110, NNTP = 119, RPC = port 135, NetBIOS over IP = 139, SNMP =161, and SSL = 44

  3. a. Verify that the unused service has no dependencies, then disable the service for security reasons.

Objective 3.5.2.2.2: Access Control Lists
  1. d. Access control lists let you deny access to one individual computer by IP address or computer name.

Objective 3.5.3: Application Hardening

  1. c. Of the items listed, configuring network applications with the most recent updates and service packs relates best to Application Hardening.

Objective 3.5.3.1: Updates (Hotfixes, Service Packs, and Patches)
  1. c. The manufacturer's Web site should have the most current network updates, including hotfixes, service packs, and patches.

Objective 3.5.3.2: Web Servers
  1. a, b, and d. The sound security practices include checking with the vendor for the latest security patches for Web software, checking for any additional unused services, and checking the Internet for any reports of software vulnerabilities.

Objective 3.5.3.3: Email Servers
  1. c. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used to support email traffic.

  2. a. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) works as a message relay agent.

  3. a, c, and d. To protect your email server you should configure your Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) relay settings, antivirus software, and access control permissions.

Objective 3.5.3.4: FTP Servers
  1. d. The primary purpose of an FTP server is to facilitate file transfers.

  2. b. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is frequently used to send and receive text-based files and messages, including router configurations and ACL information.

Objective 3.5.3.5: DNS Servers
  1. c. The primary function of a DNS server is to resolve Fully Qualified Domain Names to IP addresses.

  2. d. One of the most important tasks to perform when hardening a DNS server is to restrict zone transfers to authorized computer.

Objective 3.5.3.6: NNTP Servers
  1. b. A Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) server, which runs on port 119, allows for a high volume of group network traffic and is a potential source for malicious code or Denial of Service (DoS) attacks.

  2. c. One of the best ways to protect a NNTP server from malicious attack is to implement virus scanning on the NNTP server and use antivirus software.

Objective 3.5.3.7: File/Print Servers
  1. c. Of the items listed, the best hardening technique for File and Print servers is to evaluate and set each folder share for the appropriate file and folder permissions.

Objective 3.5.3.8: DHCP Servers
  1. b. Of the items listed, the primary network security concern with DHCP servers is that a cracker could pretend to be the DHCP server and maliciously spoof DHCP clients.

  2. c. A rogue DHCP server could pose a conflict of IP addressing for clients on your network, thereby taking them away from your zone.

Objective 3.5.3.9: Data Repositories
  1. a, c, and d. Large Data Repositories may include Storage Area Network (SAN), Network Attached Storage (NAS), and Directory Enabled Networks (DEN).

Objective 3.5.3.9.1: Directory Services
  1. a. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is considered a Directory Service.

Objective 3.5.3.9.2: Databases
  1. b. SQL has this default security vulnerability, because the "sa" account is established with a blank password.

  2. b. Polyinstantiation refers to keeping database information hidden in different sections.

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