Desktop Publishing with Scribus
Windows Equivalents: Adobe InDesign, Scribus
For more powerful document creation than OpenOffice.org can allow, Scribus is just the ticket. A desktop publishing application, Scribus is built for designing and laying out documents of various sizes and sorts. As such, it makes a few different assumptions that might catch you up if you are used to using OpenOffice.org to create your documents.
When you first launch Scribus, it asks you what kind of document you want to create or if you want to open an existing document. Let's create a one-page document and take Scribus for a spin (Figure 6-13).
Figure 6-13 Scribus's opening dialog with lots of options
The first thing to remember about Scribus is that as a desktop publishing program, it is not designed for the direct editing of images and text. You edit and create your images in applications like GIMP or Inkscape and your text in word processors like OpenOffice.org and then import them.
For starters, let's create a pair of text frames and then import the document Welcome_to_Ubuntu.odt from Example Content. To create a text frame, you need to use the Insert Text Frame tool, which can be found near the middle of the toolbar. After you draw the text frame, you need to add text to it. Right-click on the frame and choose Get Text. A dialog very similar to the Open dialog appears. Choose the Welcome_to_Ubuntu.odt file, and then select OK. You will be asked a few options; for now, accept the defaults. You should see the text appear on the screen (Figure 6-14).
Figure 6-14 The imported text in a frame
But as you can see, the text overflows the frame. In order for the rest of the text to show up, you need to create another text frame and then link the two, allowing the overflow to appear in the second frame. Go up to the toolbar again, select the Insert Text Frame, and draw another frame roughly on the bottom of the page. Then select the first frame and choose the Link Text Frames icon on the toolbar, which looks like two columns with an arrow between them. After you have selected that, click on the second text box and you should see an arrow appear and, more importantly, your text will now flow from one frame to the next (Figure 6-15).
Figure 6-15 Text now flows from frame to frame.
Next let's insert an image at the bottom of the screen. As with text, you need to create an image frame, then add the image to that frame. Draw the image frame below the two text frames, and then right-click and choose Get Image. Just as with the text import, choose your file, this time an image file, in the Open dialog, and it will appear in the frame. Let's choose the Ubuntu logo, under the Logo folder in Example Content. It will appear in your image frame (Figure 6-16).
Figure 6-16 Your document with an image added
Now that you have added some text and an image, let's export to PDF so you can share your creation with the world. On the toolbar near the left-hand edge, you will see the PDF logo, just to the left of the traffic light icon. Select that, and don't worry about the error about the DPI of the image. Select Ignore Errors, and you will see a large dialog with many options for embedding fonts and the like. Don't worry too much about them right now, as the document you have created isn't that complicated. Choose a good name for your document, and then save it to your Documents folder. Now let's take a look at your creation in the Document Viewer. Open the File Manager and load your new document (Figure 6-17).
Figure 6-17 Your document as a PDF
Now let's go back to Scribus and save the image in Scribus's own SLA format so that you can edit it later if you wish. Enter the name you chose for the PDF name and save it in the Documents folder as well. You have now created your first document in Scribus. There is a lot more to explore, so go and try things out. Just remember to save every now and again.
As always, Scribus's own help is a great place to start. The Scribus Web site at www.scribus.net has a help wiki, further documentation, and more. There is also an official book, which isn't out as of this writing but should be very shortly. Information about it can also be found on the Scribus Web site.
Playing to Learn with Educational Programs
There are many different educational applications available on Ubuntu. Let's take a look at just a few of them in the Applications > Education menu. You will find a brief summary for all applications here as well as more detailed explanations and screenshots of some of the more advanced packages.
This is the administration tool for the GCompris set of tools, which is described a little later. Using this tool, you can create separate profiles for different users of GCompris and enable or disable the list of available activities.
Kalzium presents the pinnacle of periodic table exploration for users of any ages. In its simplest form, it provides a quick and easy reference to the periodic table. Kalzium includes 105 of the naturally occurring elements, many of which are accompanied by sample pictures. If the user hovers the mouse pointer over an element symbol in the periodic table, a balloon appears showing the selected element's name, atomic number, and mass (Figure 6-18).
Figure 6-18 Kalzium
For more advanced users, Kalzium provides a fascinating way to explore the periodic table. Using the left-hand panel, users have access to the timeline, boiling point, and melting point sliders. When users move these sliders, the elements on the periodic table change color according to their dates of discovery, boiling points, or melting points respectively. Users can then start to see patterns emerging in the periodic table right in front of their eyes.
As well as presenting the basic information, Kalzium provides very advanced statistics on each of the 105 elements present.
Kanagram is a simple package that messes up the letters of a word to create an anagram that children must then unscramble. The package comes with hints, a cheat feature that reveals the word, and built-in word lists, which can be extended.
KBruch is a math program to help students practice the use of fractions. It comes with four distinct modes of play.
- Fraction Task: In this exercise, the user is given a fraction sum that must be solved by adding the numerator and denominator. The difficulty of the sum can be changed by the user, who has control over the number of fractions to use, the maximum size of the main denominator, and the mathematical operations to use, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
- Comparison: This exercise is designed to test the user's understanding of fraction sizes by making him or her compare two given fractions.
- Conversion: The Conversion mode tests the user's skills at taking a given number and converting it into a fraction.
- Factorization: Factorization tests the user in calculating the factors of a given number. Factorization is a key skill in using and manipulating fractions.
This modern version of a classic game helps children learn to spell and recognize letter patterns in words. KHangman shows a blank base to start; as the user chooses letters, they are entered into the word if correct or placed on the tries list if incorrect, in which case the hangman begins to grow. KHangman comes with three built-in word lists, but these can be extended easily.
For people wishing to learn about geometrical construction in mathematics, Kig is a must. It is an extremely powerful package but very simple to use. Kig allows users to create complex geometrical abstractions from over thirty simple tools, such as points, parallel and perpendicular lines, arcs, bisectors, circles, and hyperbola (Figure 6-19). When creating abstractions, Kig uses other lines and points already on the diagram to lock onto, making it easy to achieve high precision.
Figure 6-19 Kig
Kig also includes some testing tools. Once a geometrical diagram has been drawn, it is often required to prove a concept by showing that two lines are indeed parallel or perpendicular. Kig offers these tools and more in an easy-to-use manner. Just clicking on the tool prompts the user to choose the item to test against. Then, each time the user hovers over another item while moving the cursor around, Kig will pop up with a message to tell whether or not it satisfies the test case.
KmPlot is a mathematical function–graphing program for Edubuntu. The package has a powerful expression parser built in and can plot different functions simultaneously and combine their function terms to build more complex mathematical functions. KmPlot also supports functions with parameters and functions in polar coordinates. KmPlot can create graphs to a very high precision, making it excellent for teaching purposes.
With information on over 130,000 stars and 13,000 deep sky objects, KStars is one powerful package when it comes to space exploration. The main view in KStars follows the time and date to provide the user with a constantly updating view of the night sky. Constellations are highlighted, and star clusters are marked for clarity (Figure 6-20).
Figure 6-20 KStars
KStars has a simplistic user interface, which makes it ideal for amateurs all the way up to astronomy experts. Celestial objects can be right-clicked for more information and can then be tracked and examined in even more detail.
In addition to the huge celestial object database, there are some other fantastic features in KStars. The Calculator, for example, allows the user to compute coordinates and other figures for a variety of objects and scenarios. KStars can even be hooked up to a telescope to allow real-time tracking of what the screen shows.
The What's Up Tonight? tool provides an overview of what objects will be visible in the sky on that particular night, with the ability to then center on an object and track it in real time. The Altitude vs. Time feature allows users to see how the altitude of a celestial object varies with time during the day. With a built-in scripting language, KStars is the most comprehensive astronomical observation application in the open source community.
In this day and age, typing is an everyday occurrence for most people. KTouch is a tutor that gives help and support to those wishing to learn the art of touch typing. With fifteen levels and automatic level progression, KTouch is a fairly advanced tutor program, offering statistics and alternative language options, too.
KTurtle is a Logo programming language interpreter for Edubuntu. The Logo programming language is very easy to learn, and thus young children can use it. A unique quality of Logo is that the commands or instructions can be translated, so the user can program in his or her native language. This makes Logo ideal for teaching children the basics of programming, mathematics, and geometry. One of the reasons many children warm to Logo is that the programmable icon is a small turtle, which can be moved around the screen with simple commands and can be programmed to draw objects (Figure 6-21).
Figure 6-21 KTurtle
By typing in commands such as turnleft 90, forward 4, children are using a language native to themselves while also learning procedural logic. KTurtle can even handle simple subroutines, so it's easy to extend the programming onward and upward.
With the introduction of KDE 4, Edubuntu includes a group of brand new educational packages. Following is a brief summary of each new application.
Marble, the desktop globe, is a virtual globe and world atlas, which can be utilized to learn more about the Earth. With the ability to pan and zoom, click on a label to open a corresponding Wikipedia article, and view the globe and maps with various projections, Marble is a welcome addition to Edubuntu's educational packages.
Parley, the digital flash card, allows you to easily remember things utilizing the spaced repetition learning method, otherwise known as flash cards. Features include different testing types, fast and easy setup, multiple languages, the ability to share and download flash cards, and much more.
Step is an interactive physics simulator that allows you not only to learn but to feel how physics works. By placing bodies on the scene and adding some forces such as gravity or springs, you can simulate the law of physics, and Step will show you how your scene evolves.
Blinken takes you back, back to the 1970s, as a digital version of the famous Simon Says game. Watch the lights, listen to the sounds, and then try to complete the sequence in order. Blinken provides hours of fun with the added benefit of learning.
Others Not on the Education Menu
Some educational applications are not located in the Education menu. Here are brief descriptions of two of them.
- Tux Paint: Applications > Graphics > Tux Paint is a drawing package for younger children. Although geared toward a younger audience, Tux Paint still packs in some of the more advanced features of drawing packages and can draw shapes, paint with different brushes, use a stamp, and add text to the image. The Magic feature allows many of the more advanced tools normally found in full-fledged photo editors to be used, such as smudge, blur, negative, tint, and many more. There is also the facility to save as well as print.
- GCompris: Applications > Games > GCompris is a set of small educational activities aimed at children between two and ten years old and is translated into over forty languages. Some of the activities are game oriented and at the same time educational. Among the activities, there are tasks to educate children in computer use, algebra, science, geography, reading, and more. More than eighty activities are available in the latest release. GCompris won a Free Software Award in France in 2004.