Lisp was sufficiently popular, for a time, that people designed machines explicitly for running Lisp code. These machines used a stack-based architecture, rather than one with explicit registers. Stack-based machines fell out of favor because it was hard to extract instruction-level parallelism from them, meaning that they didn't take advantage of techniques such as pipelining and superscalar architectures.
Stack-based machines live on in virtual machines. Both the Java and .NET virtual machines use a stack-based architecture, inspired (indirectly) by Lisp machines.