This article isn't designed to be a how-to document; rather, my goal is to show you the mentality of an attacker. Phoenix could have defaced the site in many ways other than the ones I've discussed here. The point is that he had to think outside the box, know many different technologies, and chain together a number of attacks to achieve his goal.
In the unfortunate event that your network is compromised, remember these characteristics of malicious attackers. As you try to retrace the steps of the attack, keep your mind open to the many techniques the attacker may have used. To catch a thief, you must think like a thief.