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Kernel-Level

Kernel-level virtualization is kind of an oddball in the virtualization world in that each VM uses its own unique kernel to boot the guest VM (called a root file system) regardless of the host's running kernel.

KVM

Linux KVM (Kernel Virtual Machine) is a modified QEMU, but unlike QEMU, KVM uses virtualization processor extensions (Intel-VT and AMD-V). KVM supports a large number of x86 and x86_64 architecture guest operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and FreeBSD. It uses the Linux kernel as a hypervisor and runs as a kernel loadable module.

User-Mode Linux

User-mode Linux (UML) uses an executable kernel and a root file system to create a VM. To create a VM, you need a user-space executable kernel (guest kernel) and a UML-created root file system. These two components together make up a UML VM. The command-line terminal session you use to connect to the remote host system becomes your VM console. UML is included with all 2.6.x kernels.

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