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This chapter is from the book

Debugging and Logging

Cisco IOS software allows for detailed debugging for all protocols and processes running in the system for troubleshooting purposes. More information on debugging can be obtained in the Cisco IOS Debug Command Reference, available on http://www.cisco.com.

CAUTION

Only Cisco IOS experts should enable and disable debug commands, because they can have a severe performance impact and should be used with care. Improper use might leave the system inaccessible and in a frozen state in which no packet forwarding takes place.

System messages are shown on the console and can be enabled for any session into the router. Different levels of severity can be configured for different access methods into the router. The eight message severity levels are as follows:

  • Emergency (severity 0)—The system is unusable

  • Alert (severity 1)—Immediate action is needed

  • Critical (severity 2)—Critical condition

  • Error (severity 3)—Error condition

  • Warning (severity 4)—Warning condition

  • Notification (severity 5)—Normal but significant condition

  • Informational (severity 6)—Informational message

  • Debugging (severity 7)—Debugging message

The logging command directs the output to various terminals attached to the system or virtually connected, such as Telnet sessions. Example 4-3 shows how the logging command can be used to determine the severity level of the messages shown.

Example 4-3 logging Command

IOS(config)# logging ?
 Hostname or A.B.C.D   IP address of the logging host
 buffered         Set buffered logging parameters
 console         Set console logging level
 exception        Limit size of exception flush output
 facility         Facility parameter for syslog messages
 history         Configure syslog history table
 host  Set syslog server host name or IP address
monitor         Set terminal line (monitor) logging level
on            Enable logging to all supported destinations
 rate-limit        Set messages per second limit
 source-interface     Specify interface for source address in logging
  transactions
 trap           Set syslog server logging level

IOS(config)# logging console ?
 <0-7>     Logging severity level
 alerts    Immediate action needed      (severity=1)
 critical   Critical conditions        (severity=2)
 debugging   Debugging messages        (severity=7)
 emergencies  System is unusable        (severity=0)
 errors     Error conditions         (severity=3)
 guaranteed  Guarantee console messages
 informational Informational messages      (severity=6)
 notifications Normal but significant conditions (severity=5)
 warnings   Warning conditions        (severity=4)
 <cr>

Enabling a higher level of messages shows all lower-level messages as well. The debugging level, or level 7, shows all messages. System messages may also be buffered and seen using the show logging command in privileged mode. A user may also send logging messages to a syslog server using the logging host command in configuration mode. A syslog server can be configured on a UNIX device or PC to accept these messages from a router and place them in a file. This allows for large files containing system messages to be maintained, because you are not restricted by the amount of memory on the router.

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