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The Plain-English Guide to Electronics and Current Flow for Every PCB Designer
Today, PCB designers must deal with issues such as crosstalk and EMI-–issues that were once associated only with components. This requires electronics knowledge that many PCB designers never gain through formal training. In PCB Currents, renowned PCB designer Douglas Brooks teaches these essentials descriptively, in plain English, with as little reliance on mathematics as possible. Building on his widely praised seminars, Brooks explains what current is, how it flows, and how it reacts. He begins by reviewing the nature of current, and then explains current flow in basic circuits, discusses sources that supply and drive current, and addresses the unique problems associated with current on PCBs. Brooks concludes by thoroughly illuminating signal integrity issues caused by current flow. He offers practical design solutions for each common type of problem, as well as for complex challenges involving very high frequency harmonics and very short wavelengths.
• Current: its fundamental nature, basic definitions, and key concepts
• Five fundamental laws of current, including Kirchoff’s law and Ohm’s law
• Basic circuit concepts: resistive circuits, reactive circuits, and impedance
• Voltage and current sources: Where electrons come from and why they move
• Current-related PCB issues: temperature, transmission lines, reflections, coupled currents, power distribution, skin effect, dielectric losses, and vias
• Solutions for signal integrity issues caused by current flow, from on-board inductance and apparent resistance changes to more complex problems
The text is written to be accessible and valuable for PCB designers at all levels of experience, whether they have engineering training or not.
Part I: Nature of Current 1
Chapter 1: Electrons and Charges 3
Chapter 2: Basic Current Concepts 19
Chapter 3: Basic Current Laws 57
Part II Current Flow In Basic Circuits 65
Chapter 4: Resistive Circuits 67
Chapter 5: Reactive Circuits: Capacitors and Capacitance 77
Chapter 6: Reactive Circuits: Inductors and Inductance 91
Chapter 7: Reactive Circuits: Resonance 105
Chapter 8: Impedance 113
Chapter 9: Real Components and Parasitics 133
Chapter 10: Time Constants and Filters 143
Chapter 11: Transformers 159
Chapter 12: Differential Current Flow 173
Chapter 13: Semiconductors 181
Part III: Voltage and Current Sources 193
Chapter14: Voltage and Current Sources 195
Part IV: Current Flow On Circuit Boards 199
Chapter 15: Where Do Currents Flow on Circuit Boards 201
Chapter 16: Current and Trace Temperatures 205
Chapter 17: Current Reflections 213
Chapter 18: Coupled Currents/EMI/Crosstalk 233
Chapter 19: Current Distribution and Bypass Capacitors 249
Chapter 20: Frequency-Variable Resistance and Lossy Transmission Lines 263
Chapter 21: Currents and Vias 275
Chapter 22: Current and Signal Integrity 285
Appendix A:Current flow and Maxwell 303
Appendix B: Eye diagrams 307
Appendix C: Death of the Circuit Board 311