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Network Sniffers: Is Open Source Right for You?

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There are commercial-grade sniffers available from manufacturers such as Fluke, Network General, and others. While these hardware tools can provide a much deeper level of analysis, you can build an inexpensive network sniffer using open source software and a low-end Intel PC. This chapter reviews several open source Ethernet sniffers.
This chapter is from the book

You can now properly secure and harden your systems and test your network for security vulnerabilities using proactive tools that help to keep your network healthy and secure. Now we will look at some tools that help you to act and react if you have a computer attack or security issue on your network in spite of all your preparations. Network sniffers fit into this category along with intrusion detection systems and wireless sniffers.

Chapter Overview

Concepts you will learn:

  • Network sniffer fundamentals

  • Ethernet history and operation

  • How to do safe and ethical network sniffing

  • Sample sniffer configurations

  • Network sniffer applications

Tools you will use:

Tcpdump, WinDump, and Ethereal

Simply put, a network sniffer listens or "sniffs" packets on a specified physical network segment. This lets you analyze the traffic for patterns, troubleshoot specific problems, and spot suspicious behavior. A network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is nothing more than a sophisticated sniffer that compares each packet on the wire to a database of known bad traffic, just like an anti-virus program does with files on your computer.

Sniffers operate at a lower level than all of the tools described thus far. Referring to the OSI Reference model, sniffers inspect the two lowest levels, the physical and data link layers.

OSI Layer Number

Layer Name

Sample Protocols

Layer 7

Application

DNS, FTP, HTTP, SMTP, SNMP, Telnet

Layer 6

Presentation

XDR

Layer 5

Session

Named Pipes, RPC

Layer 4

Transport

NetBIOS, TCP, UDP

Layer 3

Network

ARP, IP, IPX, OSPF

Layer 2

Data Link

Arcnet, Ethernet, Token Ring

Layer 1

Physical

Coaxial, Fiber Optic, UTP

The physical layer is the actual physical cabling or other media used to create the network. The data link layer is where data is first encoded to travel over some specific medium. The data link layer network standards include 802.11 wireless, Arcnet, coaxial cable, Ethernet, Token Ring, and many others. Sniffers are generally specific to the type of network they work on. For example, you must have an Ethernet sniffer to analyze traffic on an Ethernet LAN.

There are commercial-grade sniffers available from manufacturers such as Fluke, Network General, and others. These are usually dedicated hardware devices and can run into the tens of thousands of dollars. While these hardware tools can provide a much deeper level of analysis, you can build an inexpensive network sniffer using open source software and a low-end Intel PC.

This chapter reviews several open source Ethernet sniffers. I chose to feature Ethernet in this chapter because it is the most widely deployed protocol used in local area networks. The chances are that your company uses an Ethernet network or interacts with companies that do.

It used to be that the network world was very fragmented when it came to physical and data link layer transmission standards; there was no one dominant standard for LANs. IBM made their Token Ring topology standard for their LAN PCs. Many companies that used primarily IBM equipment used Token Ring because they had no other choice. Arcnet was popular with smaller companies because of its lower cost. Ethernet dominated the university and research environment. There were many other protocols, such as Apple's AppleTalk for Macintosh computers. These protocols were usually specific to a particular manufacturer. However, with the growth of the Internet, Ethernet began to become more and more popular. Equipment vendors began to standardize and focus on low-cost Ethernet cards, hubs, and switches. Today, Ethernet has become the de facto standard for local area networks and the Internet. Most companies and organizations choose it because of its low cost and interoperability.

A Brief History of Ethernet

Bob Metcalfe invented Ethernet in 1973 while at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. (This same innovative place also fostered the invention of the laser printer and the graphical user interface, among other things.) Bob and his team developed and patented a "multipoint data connection system with collision detection" that later became known as Ethernet. Bob went on to form a company specifically dedicated to building equipment for this new protocol. This company eventually became 3Com, one of the largest network companies in the world. Luckily, Ethernet was released into the public domain so other companies could build to the specification. This was not true of Token Ring and most of the other network protocols of the day. If Ethernet had been kept proprietary or limited to only one company's hardware, it probably wouldn't have developed into the dominant standard it is today. It was eventually adopted as an official standard by the International Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), which all but assured it wide acceptance by corporate and government users worldwide. Other standards have been developed based on Ethernet, such as Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and Wi-Fi.

Ethernet handles both the physical media control and the software encoding for data going onto a network. Since Ethernet is a broadcast topology, where every computer can potentially "talk" at once, it has a mechanism to handle collisions—when data packets from two computers are transmitted at the same time. If a collision is detected, both sides retransmit the data after a random delay. This works pretty well most of the time. However, this is also a downside to the Ethernet architecture. All computers attached to an Ethernet network are broadcasting on the same physical wire, and an Ethernet card on the network sees all the traffic passing it. The Ethernet card is designed to process only packets addressed to it, but you can clearly see the security implication here.

Imagine if the way the postal system worked was that a bag containing all the mail was dropped off at the end of the street and each resident picked through it for their mail and then passed it along. (It might be interesting to see who subscribed to Playboy and who was getting the past due notices.) This fictional system is not very secure nor does it make efficient use of everyone's time, but that is essentially how Ethernet was designed.

Nowadays, most Ethernet networks are switched to improve efficiency. This means that instead of each Ethernet port seeing all the traffic, it sees only traffic intended for the machine plugged into it. This helps alleviate some of the privacy and congestion issues, but plenty of broadcast traffic still goes to every port. Broadcast traffic is sent out to every port on the network usually for discovery or informational purposes. This happens with protocols such as DHCP, where the machine sends out a broadcast looking for any DHCP servers on the network to get an address from. Machines running Microsoft Windows are also notorious for putting a lot of broadcast traffic on the LAN.

Other broadcast types are often seen on Ethernet LANs. One is Address Resolution Protocol (ARP); this is when a machine first tries to figure out which MAC address relates to which IP address (see the sidebar on MAC addresses in Chapter 3). Ethernet networks use an addressing scheme called Medium Access Control (MAC) addresses. They are 12-digit hexadecimal numbers, and are assigned to the card at the factory. Every manufacturer has its own range of numbers, so you can usually tell who made the card by looking at the MAC address. If a machine has an IP address but not the Ethernet address, it will send out ARP packets asking, "Who has this address?" When the machine receives a reply, it can then send the rest of the communication to the proper MAC address. It is this kind of traffic that make Ethernet LANs still susceptible to sniffer attacks even when they use switching instead of broadcasting all traffic to every port. Additionally, if hackers can get access to the switch (these devices are often poorly secured), they can sometimes turn their own ports into a "monitor" or "mirror" port that shows traffic from other ports.

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