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PHR Exam Prep: Professional in Human Resources, 3rd Edition

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PHR Exam Prep: Professional in Human Resources, 3rd Edition

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  • The Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test is a digital-only certification preparation product combining an eBook with enhanced Pearson IT Certification Practice Tests. Click on the "Premium Edition" tab (on the left side of this page) to learn more about this product.

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  • Your Price: $47.99
  • List Price: $59.99
  • About Premium Edition eBooks
  • The Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test is a digital-only certification preparation product combining an eBook with enhanced Pearson IT Certification Practice Tests. Click on the "Premium Edition" tab (on the left side of this page) to learn more about this product.

    Your purchase will deliver:

    • Link to download the enhanced Pearson IT Certification Practice Test exam engine
    • Access code for question database
    • eBook in the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    MOBI MOBI The eBook format compatible with the Amazon Kindle and Amazon Kindle applications.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Adobe® Reader® software.

    The eBooks require no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

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About

Features

  • The only PHR-centric book, with PHR-specific objectives
  • Features Exam Alerts that highlight critical exam information with several hundred practice questions in the book
  • Features a CD complete with PHR practice exams that allow for critical practice opportunities and a computer testing experience that mimics a real PHR testing environment

Description

  • Copyright 2016
  • Dimensions: 8-3/8" x 10-7/8"
  • Pages: 624
  • Edition: 3rd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-5612-9
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-5612-1

Score Higher on the PHR® Exam!


We provide you with the proven study tools and expert insight that will help you score higher on your exam

  • Study Tips like the advice and instruction that a personal tutor might provide
  • Notes, Tips, and Cautions provide you with hints and strategies that will help you reduce your mistakes on the exam
  • Comprehensive discussion of all six functional areas covered on the PHR Exam
  • Practice Questions that include detailed explanations of correct and incorrect answers–so you can learn the material from your success and mistakes

COMPREHENSIVE! Succeed with comprehensive learning and practice tests


  • Master the PHR exam materials in all six tested functional areas
  • Prepare with a comprehensive practice test
  • Analyze your test readiness and areas for further study with topic-focused chapter tests
  • CD-ROM—based practice exam includes an interactive test engine for a meaningful exam experience with 175 questions
  • Learn important test-taking strategies to maximize your score and diminish your anxiety

Pearson IT Certification Practice Test

The CD-ROM—based practice exam includes an interactive test engine for a realistic exam experience with 175 questions.

Includes Exclusive Offer for 70% Off Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test

CATHY LEE PANTANO WINTERFIELD, MBA, MSHE, SPHR, ACC, is President of NovaCore Performance Solutions, a firm dedicated to enhancing individual and team workplace performance. She has more than 25 years of experience in HR, training, consulting, management, and coaching for businesses, non-profits, and governmental entities. She previously served as Director of Human Resource Management Programs for Cornell University’s School of Industrial and Labor Relations. Winterfield has presented on many HR and management development topics, and co-authored more than a dozen online courses in these fields. Her books include Performance Appraisals and Mission-Driven Interviewing, as well as the Pearson IT Certification books SPHR Exam Prep, Third Edition, PHR/SPHR Quick Reference, and every edition of PHR Exam Prep. She is a member of SHRM, ASTD, and the International Coach Federation.

Premium Edition

The PHR Exam Prep, Third Edition is the most comprehensive and up to date book on the market. Unlike other books that teach to both the SPHR and PHR exams, this book is focused on just the PHR exam, providing targeted training. Exam objectives are thoroughly detailed, providing readers precisely the information they need to know to score higher on their exams.

The book features the Exam Prep Proven Method of Study which includes Exam Alerts, tips, notes, sidebars, hundreds of PHR practice questions, relevant exercises, review breaks, a glossary, objective reference sheet, a practice exam CD, and a full practice exam in the book.

Psychological and emotional support for approaching this critical exam is offered throughout the book to help mentally prepare PHR candidates for taking the test. The book helps PHR candidates assess their exam readiness with practice exam questions along with helping candidates develop effective study habits tailored for PHR exam preparation. As an HR professor, the author has unique and time-tested methods that help candidates make effective use of their time and preferred learning styles. This book serves as the perfect complement to the larger and very deep PHR training courses that exist today. This third edition of the PHR Exam Prep provides direct support for PHR candidates, and is updated to match recent exam changes for the most comprehensive and focused preparation tool on the market.

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

PHR Exam Prep: Workforce Planning and Employment

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 2 and Index)

Table of Contents


Introduction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

Chapter 1: Business Management and Strategy (BM & S).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
The Evolving Role of HR.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    
A Brief Historical Scan of HR.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    HR As It Was, and HR As It Is (or Can Be).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    The HR Impact Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    The Dimensions of HR: The Three Legs of a Stool.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
    SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats).. . . . . . . 6
Environmental Scanning: An External Perspective.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    The HR Professional as Internal Consultant.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Organizational Structure and HR.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
    The “Roots” of Organizational Structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    The Functional Organizational Structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    The Divisional Organizational Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    The Matrix Organizational Structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    Other Organizational Design Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
    The Organizational Life Cycle.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, 1954.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
    B.F. Skinner, Operant Conditioning, 1957.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    Frederick Herzberg, Motivation-Hygiene Theory, 1959.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    Douglas McGregor, Theory X and Theory Y, 1960. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
    David McClelland, Acquired Needs Theory, 1961. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
    J. Stacy Adams, Equity Theory, 1963.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
    Victor Vroom—Expectancy Theory, 1964.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    HR’s Role in Change Management.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    Nonmathematical Forecasting Techniques.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
    Mathematical Forecasting Techniques.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Legislative Framework, Considerations, and Opportunities.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
    How a Bill Becomes a Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
    Be Heard—Reach Out to Your Elected Officials.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
    Stay Informed.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Strategic Planning.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
    Strategic Planning: A Four-Phase Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
    Strategic Objectives.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Leadership Concepts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
    Trait Theories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    Behavioral Theories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    Situational Leadership Theories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    Contingency Theories.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
    
Management and Leadership: Bridging the Gap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
    Project Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
    Competitive Advantage.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
    Business Case Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
    Organizational Branding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Chapter Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
    Key Terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Apply Your Knowledge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
    Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51    
    Exam Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
    Answers to Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
    Suggested Readings and Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Chapter 2: Workforce Planning and Employment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 57
Relevant Laws and Executive Orders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, 1964.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
    Executive Order 11246, 1965. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
    Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, 1978.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
    Governing EEO Laws.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
    Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 1967.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
    Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1970.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
    Equal Employment Opportunity Act, 1972. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
    Rehabilitation Act, 1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
    Pregnancy Discrimination Act, 1978.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
    Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
    Drug-Free Workplace Act, 1988.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
    Employee Polygraph Protection Act, 1988.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
    Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
    Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
    Civil Rights Act of 1991.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
    Family and Medical Leave Act, 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
    Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act, 1994. . . . . . 79
    Congressional Accountability Act, 1995.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
    Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act, 2008.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
    Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, 2008.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
    Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 2009.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Relevant Case Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
    Griggs v. Duke Power, 1971.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
    McDonnell Douglas Corp v. Green, 1973.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
    Albemarle Paper v. Moody, 1975. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    Washington v. Davis, 1976. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    Regents of California v. Bakke, 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    United Steelworkers v. Weber, 1979. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    Johnson v. Santa Clara County Transportation Agency, 1987.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    Martin v. Wilks, 1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls, 1990.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    Harris v. Forklift Systems, 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    Taxman v. Board of Education of Piscataway, 1993.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
    St. Mary’s Honor Center v. Hicks, 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
    McKennon v. Nashville Banner Publishing Co., 1995.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
    Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, 1998, and Ellerth v. Burlington Northern Industries, 1998.. . . .. . . . . . 84
    Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, 1999.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    Kolstad v. American Dental Association, 1999.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    Circuit City Stores, Inc. v. Adams, 2001.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger, 2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    General Dynamics Land Systems v. Cline, 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
    Ricci v. DeStefano, 2009.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, Inc., 2015.. . . . . . . . . 86
Legal Concepts/Definitions Relevant to Workplace Planning and Employment. . . . 86
    Equal Employment Opportunity: The Basics.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
    Key EEO-Related Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    Federal, State, and Local Jurisdictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    Filing Charges: Time Limits and Related Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
    EEOC—Handling Charges.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
    EEOC Determinations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
    EEO—Going to Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
    Job Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
    Job Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
    Job Descriptions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Recruiting Candidates.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
    Employer Branding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
    Relevant Labor Market. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
    Selection Criteria.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
    Internal and External Recruiting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
    Request for Proposal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
    Preemployment Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
    Measuring Recruiting Costs and Effectiveness.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
The Selection Process.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
    The Employment Application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
    Interviews and the Interview Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
    Realistic Job Previews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Background Checks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Employment: Extending the Offer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
    Tips for Extending an Employment Offer.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
    Employment Contracts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Onboarding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
    The Importance of New Hire Paperwork.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Termination: The End of the Employment Life Cycle…or Is It?.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
    Involuntary Terminations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
    Voluntary Terminations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
    Constructive Discharge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Exit Interviews.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Severance Packages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Affirmative Action Plans.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
    Executive Order 11246. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
    Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act, 1974.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Compensation and Benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
    Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
    Equal Pay Act, 1963.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
    Compensation Strategies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Documentation Strategies for HR Professionals.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Chapter Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Key Terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Apply Your Knowledge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
    Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
    Exam Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
    Answers to Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
    Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
    Suggested Readings and Resources.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Chapter 3: Human Resource Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Understanding HR-Related Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
    U.S. Patent Act, 1790. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
    Copyright Act of 1976.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
    Public Domain.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
    Fair Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
    Common Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
    Negligent Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
ADDIE: An Overview.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
    ADDIE: “A” Is for Analysis/Assessment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
    ADDIE: “D” Is for Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Training.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
    The Adult Learner.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
    Learning Styles: How We Learn.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
    Learning Curves.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
    Retaining What Is Learned.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
    Environmental Factors/Elements to Consider—“Brick and Mortar” Classroom Learning.. . . . . . . . . 186
    ADDIE: “D” Is for Development.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
    ADDIE: “I” Is for Implementation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
    ADDIE: “E” Is for Evaluation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
    Elements of OD.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
    Purposes of OD.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
    Role of HR Professionals in OD.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
    OD and Organizational Culture.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Career Development.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Leadership Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
    High-Potential Employees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
    Dual Career Ladders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
    Succession Planning.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
    Talent Management.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
    Teambuilding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
    Specific OD Interventions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Performance Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
    Performance Management: Its Organizational Roots.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
    The Performance Management Process/System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Coaching and Mentoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Chapter Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
    Key Terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Apply Your Knowledge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
    Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
    Exam Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
    Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
    Suggested Readings and Resources.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Chapter 4: Compensation and Benefits.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 223
Worker’s Compensation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
    Davis-Bacon Act, 1931.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
    Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, 1936.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
    Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
    Portal-to-Portal Act, 1947.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
    Equal Pay Act, 1963.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
    Social Security Act, 1935.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
    Unemployment Insurance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
    Medicare, 1965.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
    Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 1974.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
    Revenue Act, 1978.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
    Retirement Equity Act (REA), 1984.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
    Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA), 1985.. . . . . . . . 238
    Older Worker’s Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA), 1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
    Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 1996.. . . . . . . 240
    Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 1993.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
    Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA), 1994.. . . . . . . . . 248
    Mental Health Parity Act, 1996.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
    Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
    Pension Protection Act, 2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
    Family and Medical Leave Act and National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), 2008.. . . . .   . . 250
    Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 2009.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
    Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 2010.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
    A (Foundational) Footnote: Employee or Independent Contractor?.. . . . . . . . 258
Compensation: Building and Using Pay Structures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
    Elements of Pay Structures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
    Using Pay Structures for Decision-Making. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
    Other Key Compensation Concepts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
    Retirement Plans.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
    Health and Welfare Benefits.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
    Pay for Time Not Worked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
    Work-Life Programs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
    Employee Assistance Programs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Compensation: Job Evaluation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
    Nonquantitative Job Evaluation Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
    Quantitative Job Evaluation Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Market Pricing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
    Market Data Considerations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
    Base Pay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
    Merit Pay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
    Variable Pay.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
    Making the Connection to Compensation Strategy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Chapter Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
    Key Terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Apply Your Knowledge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
    Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
    Exam Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
    Answers to Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
    Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
    Suggested Readings and Resources.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

Chapter 5: Employee and Labor Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Laws Governing Employee Relations and Labor Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
    Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
    Clayton Act, 1914. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
    Railway Labor Act, 1926.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
    Norris-LaGuardia Act, 1932.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
    National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
    National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), 1935. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
    Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act), 1947.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
    Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act), 1959.. . ..  . . 297
    Federal Labor Relations Statute, 1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
    Relevant Case Law.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Employee Input.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
    Employee Surveys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
    Focus Groups.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
    Employee Participation Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
    Open-Door Policy.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
    Suggestion Programs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
    Management by Walking Around.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
    Town Hall/Department/Staff Meetings.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
    Employee Relations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
    Internal Considerations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
    Organizational Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Employee Involvement and Employee Communication.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
    Employee Communication Strategies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Measuring Employee Relations Initiatives.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
    Quantitative Analysis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
    Qualitative Analysis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
    Turnover Levels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
    Absenteeism (Particularly Unplanned). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
    Work-Related Accidents/Injuries/“Preventable” Illnesses.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
    Productivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
    Quality.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
    Customer Satisfaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
    Employee Survey Results.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
    Return on Investment (ROI).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Employee Handbooks.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Progressive Discipline as Employee Relations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Contract Administration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
    Grievance Procedure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Unions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
    How Unions Are Structured.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
    Union Organizing (The Organizing Process).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
    Union Decertification and Deauthorization.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
    Protected Concerted Activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
    Labor Strikes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Collective Bargaining: The Process.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
    Good Faith Bargaining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
    Subjects of Bargaining.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
    Approaches to Collective Bargaining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Collective Bargaining Agreements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
    Typical Provisions of Collective Bargaining Agreements (Excluding Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures).. . . . . 337
Common Law.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
    Common Law—Tort Doctrines.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
    Common Law—Contract Doctrines.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Chapter Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
    Key Terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Apply Your Knowledge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
    Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
    Exam Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
    Answers to Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
    Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
    Suggested Readings and Resources.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

Chapter 6: Risk Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 361
Key Legislation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
    Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1970.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
    Mine Safety and Health Act, 1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
    Drug-Free Workplace Act, 1988.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
    USA PATRIOT Act, 2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
    Homeland Security Act, 2002.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
    Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Occupational Health.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
    Health Hazards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
    Health and Wellness Programs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
    Chemical Use and Dependency.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
    Work-Related Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
    Worker’s Compensation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
    Risk Management: A Process Model.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
    Risk Management: Techniques.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
    Employment Practices Liability Insurance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
    Employee Rights Related to Substance Abuse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
    Emergency/Business Continuity Planning.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
    Continuity of HR-Related Operations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Safety.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
    OSHA and Workplace Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
    Safety Committees.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Chapter Summary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
    Key Terms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Apply Your Knowledge.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
    Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
    Exam Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
    Answers to Review Questions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
    Answers to Exam Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
    Suggested Readings and Resources.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405

Practice Exam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 407

Answers to Practice Exam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
    Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
    Answers with Explanations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

Glossary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

Appendix A: OSHA Forms for Recording Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses.. . . . . . . . . . . 529
Appendix B: OSHA Fact Sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541

Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 543

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