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HyperTransport™ System Architecture

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HyperTransport™ System Architecture


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  • Copyright 2003
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-321-16845-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-321-16845-0

HyperTransport™ (HT) technology promises to revolutionize connectivity for computers, servers, embedded systems, and networking and tele-communications equipment. It is a high-speed, low latency, point-to-point, packetized link that enables chips to transfer data at peak rates of up to 12.8 Gigabytes per second, far greater than existing bus technologies. Furthermore, HyperTransport improves reliability and reduces board design complexity. It is scalable and compatible with legacy PC buses, SNA, and PCI.

HyperTransport™ System Architecture provides a comprehensive, technical guide to HyperTransport technology. It opens with an overview of HT systems, highlighting the technology's fundamental principles, basic architecture, and its many advantages. The book goes on to detail all facets of HyperTransport systems, including the protocol, I/O, routing, configuration, and more. It also features important performance considerations and addresses critical compatibility issues.

Essential topics covered include:

  • Signal groups
  • Packet protocol, covering control and data packets
  • HT flow control, and how it differs from PCI flow control
  • I/O ordering rules, including upstream, downstream, and host ordering requirements
  • Interrupts, error detection, and error handling
  • HT system management
  • Routing packets, covering point-to-point topology and HT's fairness algorithm
  • Device configuration
  • The electrical environment, including power requirements and signaling characteristics
  • HyperTransport bridges
  • Double-hosted chains
  • Anticipated networking extensions
  • PCI, PCI-X, AGP, and X86 compatibility issues

A chapter is dedicated to transaction examples illustrating the practical application of HyperTransport technology.

A MindShare PC System Architecture Series book, HyperTransport™ System Architecture provides complete, authoritative, and detailed information necessary for developers, networking professionals, and anyone interested in implementing and deploying HT systems.

MindShare's PC System Architecture Series is a crisply written and comprehensive set of guides to the most important PC hardware standards. Books in the series are intended for use by hardware and software designers, programmers, and support personnel. Each title explains the architecture, features, and operations of systems built using one particular type of chip or hardware specification.


Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

HyperTransport Flow Control

Downloadable Sample Chapter

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Sample Chapter 5

Table of Contents

About This Book.


Introduction to HyperTransport.
HT Architectural Overview.


Signal Groups.
Packet Protocol.
Flow Control.
IO Ordering.
Transaction Examples.
HT Interrupts.
System Management.
Error Detection And Handling.
Routing Packets.
Reset & Initialization.
Device Configuration.


HyperTransport Bridges.
Double-Hosted Chains.
HT Power Management.
Networking Extensions.


I/O Compatibility.
Address Remapping.
X86 CPU Compatibility.
Index. 0321168453T11262002.


Cautionary Note

The reader should keep in mind that MindShare's book series often details rapidly evolving technologies. The being the case, it should be recognized that the book is a "snapshot" of the state of the technology at the time the book was completed. We make every attempt to produce our books on a timely basis, but the next revision of the specification is not introduced in time to make necessary changes. This HyperTransport book complies with revision 1.04 of the Hyper-Transport™ I/O Link specification. The Networking Extensions specification was still under development and not released when this book was completed. However, a chapter covering the major features of the Networking Extensions specification has been included in this book.

Intended Audience

This book is intended for use by hardware and software design and support personnel. The tutorial approach taken may also make it useful to technical personnel not directly involved design, verification, and other support functions.

Prerequisite Knowledge

It is recommended that the reader has a reasonable background in PC architecture, including experience or knowledge of an I/O bus and related protocol. The MindShare publications entitled ISA System Architecture focusses on various aspects of PCI architecture and provides the necessary background.

Topics and Organization

Topics covered in this book and the flow of the book are as follows:

Part 1: Overview of HyperTransport™ Technology
Chapter 1: Introduction to HyperTransport™
Chapter 2: Big Picture
Part 2: HyperTransport™ Core Topics
Chapter 3: Signal Groups
Chapter 4: Packet Protocol
Chapter 5: Flow Control
Chapter 6: Transaction Ordering
Chapter 7: Transaction Examples
Chapter 8: HyperTransport Interrupts
Chapter 9: System Management
Chapter 10: Error Detection and Handling
Chapter 11: Routing Packets
Chapter 12: Reset and Initialization
Chapter 13: Device Configuration
Chapter 14: Electrical Implementation
Chapter 15: Clocking Concepts
Chapter 16: HyperTransport Bridges
Part 3: HyperTransport™ Optional Topics
Chapter 17: HyperTransport Bridges
Chapter 18: Double-Hosted Chains
Chapter 19: Power Management
Chapter 20: Networking Extensions
Part 4: HyperTransport Legacy Support
Chapter 21: I/O Compatibility
Chapter 22: Address Remapping
Chapter 23: x86 CPU Compatibility
Appendix: Glossary
Documentation Conventions

This section defines the typographical convention used throughout this book.


HyperTransport™ is a trademark of the HyperTransport Consortium. This book takes the liberty of abbreviating HyperTransport as "HT." to improve readability.

Hexadecimal Notation

All hex numbers are followed by a lower case "h." For example:

Binary Notation

All binary numbers are followed by a lower case "b." For example:
1000 1001 1111 0010b

Decimal Notation

Number without any suffix are decimal. When required for clarity, decimalnumbers are followed by a lower case "d." Examples:

Bits Versus Bytes Notation

This book represents bit with lower case "b" and bytes with an upper case "B." For example:
Megabits/second = Mb/s
Megabytes/second = MG/s

Bit Fields and Groups of Signals

Groups of signals or bits are represented with the high-order bits first followed by the low-order bits and enclosed by brackets. For example:

Active Signal States

Signals that are active low are followed by #, as in RESET#. Active high signals have no suffix following the signal, as in PWROK.

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