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Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud

Foundations of Modern Networking: SDN, NFV, QoE, IoT, and Cloud

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Description

  • Copyright 2016
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 544
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-417546-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-417546-1

Foundations of Modern Networking is a comprehensive, unified survey of modern networking technology and applications for today’s professionals, managers, and students. Dr. William Stallings offers clear and well-organized coverage of five key technologies that are transforming networks: Software-Defined Networks (SDN), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), Quality of Experience (QoE), the Internet of Things (IoT), and cloudbased services.

Dr. Stallings reviews current network ecosystems and the challenges they face–from Big Data and mobility to security and complexity. Next, he offers complete, self-contained coverage of each new set of technologies: how they work, how they are architected, and how they can be applied to solve real problems. Dr. Stallings presents a chapter-length analysis of emerging security issues in modern networks. He concludes with an up-to date discussion of networking careers, including important recent changes in roles and skill requirements.

Coverage:

  • Elements of the modern networking ecosystem: technologies, architecture, services, and applications
  • Evolving requirements of current network environments
  • SDN: concepts, rationale, applications, and standards across data, control, and application planes
  • OpenFlow, OpenDaylight, and other key SDN technologies
  • Network functions virtualization: concepts, technology, applications, and software defined infrastructure
  • Ensuring customer Quality of Experience (QoE) with interactive video and multimedia network traffic
  • Cloud networking: services, deployment models, architecture, and linkages to SDN and NFV
  • IoT and fog computing in depth: key components of IoT-enabled devices, model architectures, and example implementations
  • Securing SDN, NFV, cloud, and IoT environments
  • Career preparation and ongoing education for tomorrow’s networking careers

Key Features:

  • Strong coverage of unifying principles and practical techniques
  • More than a hundred figures that clarify key concepts
  • Web support at williamstallings.com/Network/
  • QR codes throughout, linking to the website and other resources
  • Keyword/acronym lists, recommended readings, and glossary
  • Margin note definitions of key words throughout the text

Sample Content

Table of Contents

    Preface xxi

PART I MODERN NETWORKING 3

Chapter 1: Elements of Modern Networking 4

    1.1 The Networking Ecosystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    1.2 Example Network Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

        A Global Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

        A Typical Network Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    1.3 Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

        Applications of Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

        Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

        Ethernet Data Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    1.4 Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

        Applications of Wi-Fi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

        Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

        Wi-Fi Data Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    1.5 4G/5G Cellular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

        First Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

        Second Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

        Third Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

        Fourth Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

        Fifth Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    1.6 Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

        Cloud Computing Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

        The Benefits of Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

        Cloud Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

        Cloud Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    1.7 Internet of Things. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

        Things on the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

        Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

        Layers of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    1.8 Network Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    1.9 Unified Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    1.10 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Chapter 2: Requirements and Technology 38

    2.1 Types of Network and Internet Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

        Elastic Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

        Inelastic Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

        Real-Time Traffic Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    2.2 Demand: Big Data, Cloud Computing, and Mobile Traffic . . . . . . 45

        Big Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

        Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

        Mobile Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    2.3 Requirements: QoS and QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

        Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

        Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    2.4 Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

        Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

        Packet Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

        Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

        Elements of a Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    2.5 Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

        Effects of Congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

        Congestion Control Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    2.6 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

        Software-Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

        Network Functions Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    2.7 Modern Networking Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    2.8 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    2.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

PART II SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKS 75

Chapter 3: SDN: Background and Motivation 76

    3.1 Evolving Network Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

        Demand Is Increasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

        Supply Is Increasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

        Traffic Patterns Are More Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

        Traditional Network Architectures are Inadequate . . . . . . . . . 79

    3.2 The SDN Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

        Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

        SDN Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

        Characteristics of Software-Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . 85

    3.3 SDN- and NFV-Related Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

        Standards-Developing Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

        Industry Consortia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

        Open Development Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

    3.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

    3.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Chapter 4: SDN Data Plane and OpenFlow 92

    4.1 SDN Data Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

        Data Plane Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

        Data Plane Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

    4.2 OpenFlow Logical Network Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

        Flow Table Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

        Flow Table Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

        The Use of Multiple Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

        Group Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

    4.3 OpenFlow Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

    4.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Chapter 5: SDN Control Plane 112

    5.1 SDN Control Plane Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

        Control Plane Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

        Southbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

        Northbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

        Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

    5.2 ITU-T Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

    5.3 OpenDaylight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

        OpenDaylight Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

        OpenDaylight Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

    5.4 REST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

        REST Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

        Example REST API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

    5.5 Cooperation and Coordination Among Controllers . . . . . . . . 133

        Centralized Versus Distributed Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

        High-Availability Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

        Federated SDN Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

        Border Gateway Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

        Routing and QoS Between Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

        Using BGP for QoS Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

        IETF SDNi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

        OpenDaylight SNDi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

    5.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

    5.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Chapter 6: SDN Application Plane 144

    6.1 SDN Application Plane Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

        Northbound Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

        Network Services Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

        Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

        User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

    6.2 Network Services Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

        Abstractions in SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

        Frenetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

    6.3 Traffic Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

        PolicyCop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

    6.4 Measurement and Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

    6.5 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

        OpenDaylight DDoS Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

    6.6 Data Center Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

        Big Data over SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

        Cloud Networking over SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

    6.7 Mobility and Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

    6.8 Information-Centric Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

        CCNx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

        Use of an Abstraction Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

    6.9 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

PART III VIRTUALIATION 175

Chapter 7: Network Functions Virtualization: Concepts and Architecture 176

    7.1 Background and Motivation for NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

    7.2 Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

        The Virtual Machine Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

        Architectural Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

        Container Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

    7.3 NFV Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

        Simple Example of the Use of NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

        NFV Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

        High-Level NFV Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

    7.4 NFV Benefits and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

        NFV Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

        NFV Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

    7.5 NFV Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

        NFV Management and Orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

        Reference Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

        Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

    7.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

    7.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Chapter 8: NFV Functionality 198

    8.1 NFV Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

        Container Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

        Deployment of NFVI Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

        Logical Structure of NFVI Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

        Compute Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

        Hypervisor Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

        Infrastructure Network Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

    8.2 Virtualized Network Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

        VNF Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

        VNFC to VNFC Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

        VNF Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

    8.3 NFV Management and Orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

        Virtualized Infrastructure Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

        Virtual Network Function Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

        NFV Orchestrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

        Repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

        Element Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

        OSS/BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

    8.4 NFV Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

        Architectural Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

        Service-Oriented Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

    8.5 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

    8.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

    8.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Chapter 9: Network Virtualization 230

    9.1 Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

        The Use of Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

        Defining VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

        Communicating VLAN Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

        IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

        Nested VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

    9.2 OpenFlow VLAN Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

    9.3 Virtual Private Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

        IPsec VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

        MPLS VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

    9.4 Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

        A Simplified Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

        Network Virtualization Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

        Benefits of Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

    9.5 OpenDaylight’s Virtual Tenant Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

    9.6 Software-Defined Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

        Software-Defined Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

        SDI Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

    9.7 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

    9.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

PART IV DEFINING AND SUPPORTING USER NEEDS 265

Chapter 10: Quality of Service 266

    10.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

    10.2 QoS Architectural Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

        Data Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

        Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

        Management Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

    10.3 Integrated Services Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

        ISA Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

        ISA Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

        ISA Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

        Queuing Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

    10.4 Differentiated Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

        Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

        DiffServ Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

        DiffServ Configuration and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

        Per-Hop Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

        Default Forwarding PHB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

    10.5 Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

    10.6 IP Performance Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

    10.7 OpenFlow QoS Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

        Queue Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

        Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

    10.8 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

    10.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Chapter 11: QoE: User Quality of Experience 300

    11.1 Why QoE? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

        Online Video Content Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

    11.2 Service Failures Due to Inadequate QoE Considerations . . . . . 304

    11.3 QoE-Related Standardization Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

    11.4 Definition of Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

        Definition of Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

        Definition of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

        Quality Formation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

        Definition of Quality of Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

    11.5 QoE Strategies in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

        The QoE/QoS Layered Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

        Summarizing and Merging the QoE/QoS Layers . . . . . . . . . 310

    11.6 Factors Influencing QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

    11.7 Measurements of QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

        Subjective Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

        Objective Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

        End-User Device Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

        Summarizing the QoE Measurement Methods . . . . . . . . . . 316

    11.8 Applications of QoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

    11.9 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

    11.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

Chapter 12: Network Design Implications of QoS and QoE 322

    12.1 Classification of QoE/QoS Mapping Models . . . . . . . . . . 323

        Black-Box Media-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . . 323

        Glass-Box Parameter-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . 325

        Gray-Box QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

        Tips for QoS/QoE Mapping Model Selection . . . . . . . . . . . 327

    12.2 IP-Oriented Parameter-Based QoS/QoE Mapping Models . . . . . 327

        Network Layer QoE/QoS Mapping Models for Video Services . . . . 328

        Application Layer QoE/QoS Mapping Models for Video Services . . 328

    12.3 Actionable QoE over IP-Based Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

        The System-Oriented Actionable QoE Solution . . . . . . . . . . 330

        The Service-Oriented Actionable QoE Solution . . . . . . . . . . 331

    12.4 QoE Versus QoS Service Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

        QoS Monitoring Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

        QoE Monitoring Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

    12.5 QoE-Based Network and Service Management . . . . . . . . . 341

        QoE-Based Management of VoIP Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

        QoE-Based Host-Centric Vertical Handover . . . . . . . . . . . 341

        QoE-Based Network-Centric Vertical Handover . . . . . . . . . 342

    12.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

    12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

PART V MODERN NETWORK ARCHITECTURE: CLOUDS AND FOG 347

Chapter 13: Cloud Computing 348

    13.1 Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

    13.2 Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

        Software as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

        Platform as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

        Infrastructure as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

        Other Cloud Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

        XaaS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

    13.3 Cloud Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358

        Public Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

        Private Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

        Community Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

        Hybrid Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

    13.4 Cloud Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

        NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . . 361

        ITU-T Cloud Computing Reference Architecture . . . . . . . . . 365

    13.5 SDN and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368

        Service Provider Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

        Private Cloud Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

        ITU-T Cloud Computing Functional Reference Architecture . . . . . 369

    13.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

Chapter 14: The Internet of Things: Components 372

    14.1 The IoT Era Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

    14.2 The Scope of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

    14.3 Components of IoT-Enabled Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

        Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

        Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

        Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

        Transceivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

        RFID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387

    14.4 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

    14.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

Chapter 15: The Internet of Things: Architecture and Implementation 394

    15.1 IoT Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

        ITU-T IoT Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

        IoT World Forum Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

    15.2 IoT Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

        IoTivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

        Cisco IoT System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

        ioBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

    15.3 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

    15.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

PART VI RELATED TOPICS 433

Chapter 16: Security 434

    16.1 Security Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

    16.2 SDN Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

        Threats to SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436

        Software-Defined Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

    16.3 NFV Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

        Attack Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441

        ETSI Security Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444

        Security Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

    16.4 Cloud Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446

        Security Issues and Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449

        Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . 450

        Data Protection in the Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452

        Cloud Security as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

        Addressing Cloud Computer Security Concerns . . . . . . . . . 456

    16.5 IoT Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458

        The Patching Vulnerability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459

        IoT Security and Privacy Requirements Defined by ITU-T . . . . . 459

        An IoT Security Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

        Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

    16.6 Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

    16.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

Chapter 17: The Impact of the New Networking on IT Careers 466

    17.1 The Changing Role of Network Professionals . . . . . . . . . . 467

        Changing Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

        Impact on Job Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

        Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

    17.2 DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470

        DevOps Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

        The Demand for DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475

        DevOps for Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476

        DevOps Network Offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478

        Cisco DevNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

        Conclusion on the Current State of DevOps . . . . . . . . . . . 479

    17.3 Training and Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

        Certification Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

        IT Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488

    17.4 Online Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489

    17.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491

    Appendix A: References 492

    Glossary 498

9780134175393, TOC, 10/5/2015

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