C++ Template Metaprogramming: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques from Boost and Beyond
- By David Abrahams, Aleksey Gurtovoy
- Published Dec 10, 2004 by Addison-Wesley Professional. Part of the C++ In-Depth Series series.
- Copyright 2005
- Dimensions: 7-3/8x9-1/4
- Pages: 400
- Edition: 1st
- ISBN-10: 0-321-22725-5
- ISBN-13: 978-0-321-22725-6
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Product Author Bios
David Abrahams is a founding member and moderator of the Boost C++ library development group. Dave has been an ANSI/ISO C++ committee member since 1996, where he is best known for contributing a theory, specification, and implementation of exception handling for the C++ standard library. His company, Boost Consulting, provides Boost-related support and development services and professional training in the art of software construction.
Aleksey Gurtovoy is a technical lead for MetaCommunications and a contributing member of the Boost C++ community. Aleksey is the original author of the Boost Metaprogramming Library. He has been working with C++ since 1993, and holds a M.S. degree in computer science from Krasnoyarsk Technical State University, Russia.
Abrahams and Gurtovoy have written something close to a classic… marvelous fun to read…
Read the complete book review by Jack J. Woehr, Dr. Dobbs Journal, June 03, 2005
"If you're like me, you're excited by what people do with template metaprogramming (TMP) but are frustrated at the lack of clear guidance and powerful tools. Well, this is the book we've been waiting for. With help from the excellent Boost Metaprogramming Library, David and Aleksey take TMP from the laboratory to the workplace with readable prose and practical examples, showing that "compile-time STL" is as able as its runtime counterpart. Serving as a tutorial as well as a handbook for experts, this is the book on C++ template metaprogramming."
—Chuck Allison, Editor, The C++ Source
C++ Template Metaprogramming sheds light on the most powerful idioms of today's C++, at long last delivering practical metaprogramming tools and techniques into the hands of the everyday programmer.
A metaprogram is a program that generates or manipulates program code. Ever since generic programming was introduced to C++, programmers have discovered myriad "template tricks" for manipulating programs as they are compiled, effectively eliminating the barrier between program and metaprogram. While excitement among C++ experts about these capabilities has reached the community at large, their practical application remains out of reach for most programmers. This book explains what metaprogramming is and how it is best used. It provides the foundation you'll need to use the template metaprogramming effectively in your own work.
This book is aimed at any programmer who is comfortable with idioms of the Standard Template Library (STL). C++ power-users will gain a new insight into their existing work and a new fluency in the domain of metaprogramming. Intermediate-level programmers who have learned a few advanced template techniques will see where these tricks fit in the big picture and will gain the conceptual foundation to use them with discipline. Programmers who have caught the scent of metaprogramming, but for whom it is still mysterious, will finally gain a clear understanding of how, when, and why it works. All readers will leave with a new tool of unprecedented power at their disposal—the Boost Metaprogramming Library.
The companion CD-ROM contains all Boost C++ libraries, including the Boost Metaprogramming Library and its reference documentation, along with all of the book's sample code and extensive supplementary material.
40 of 44 people found the following review helpful
I found the title misleading,
This review is from: C++ Template Metaprogramming: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques from Boost and Beyond (Paperback)This book is called "C++ Template Metaprogramming" but it should be called "Boost MPL API Reference." The first portion of this book covers the basics of template metaprogramming fairly well, but what I wanted the rest of the book to cover were both advanced techniques and real-world applications. What I got was material on how to use the Boost metaprogramming library. This book mostly covers just that library, and the various templates that it offers, but what I felt the book should have provided was not only how the more interesting parts of the MPL were implemented, but also interesting applications of the MPL where some interesting algorithm was made possible by template metaprogramming. I can look up the MPL reference docs online, thank you very much.
To summarize - this is a pretty good introduction to template metaprogramming, but seems to be suited for the unlikely position of someone who wants or needs to use this technique, but isn't academically interested in... Read more
28 of 30 people found the following review helpful
An interesting book...,
This review is from: C++ Template Metaprogramming: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques from Boost and Beyond (Paperback)This is a really interesting book. The template metaprogramming technical topics covered are extremely advanced, and right at the leading edge of C++ library development, yet the step-by-step presentation makes the material understandable even to intermediate programmers. Since the book draws its examples from code that works with the Boost libraries (supplied on a CD), readers can try the examples and play around with them to see how they work.
Some of the libraries discussed (Boost Type Traits, Boost Bind) are well along to becoming part of the C++ standard via a library technical report, so they will eventually become available to every C++ programmer. The bulk of the book is devoted to the Boost Metaprogramming Library, which packages up a lot of advanced techniques into accessible form.
One issue with template metaprogramming is that compile times can get out of hand. The book includes an appendix with hints on avoiding the problem, together with test... Read more
19 of 21 people found the following review helpful
Necessary book for template library writers.,
Amazon Verified Purchase(What's this?)
This review is from: C++ Template Metaprogramming: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques from Boost and Beyond (Paperback)This book describes the boost MPL library. Its a very useful guide to this library and it includes enough examples to walk you through how to use it.
Secondly the book explains Meta-programming. This is a new concept to a lot of C++ programmers and old hat to LISP programmers. The C++ pre-compiler is constrained to integral types as constraints. But there are a host of tricks you can use within that constraint to build libraries that adapt to their calling structure. Thus generating code that is as efficient as hand written. Of course with your compiler, your milage may vary.
The other great thing about using this library, MPL, is that where you would write repeticious template code for every parameter in a template'd library like Tuples, you can automate with it with MPL.
Meta programming is a pretty new concept within the C++ community and this book will give us a common language to talk about it. There are other resources on the net, but this book... Read more
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Online Sample Chapter
Table of Contents
Making the Most of This Book.
So What's a Metaprogram?
Metaprogramming in the Host Language.
Metaprogramming in C++.
Why a Metaprogramming Library?
2. Traits and Type Manipulation.
Making Choices at Compile Time.
A Brief Tour of the Boost Type Traits Library.
3. A Deeper Look at Metafunctions.
More Lambda Capabilities.
4. Integral Type Wrappers and Operations.
Boolean Wrappers and Operations.
Integer Wrappers and Operations.
5. Sequences and Iterators.
Sequences and Algorithms.
Intrinsic Sequence Operations.
Integral Sequence Wrappers.
Writing Your Own Sequence.
Algorithms, Idioms, Reuse, and Abstraction.
Algorithms in the MPL.
Fundamental Sequence Algorithms.
Sequence Building Algorithms.
Writing Your Own Algorithms.
7. Views and Iterator Adaptors.
A Few Examples.
Writing Your Own View.
Debugging the Error Novel.
Using Tools for Diagnostic Analysis.
Intentional Diagnostic Generation.
9. Crossing the Compile-Time/Runtime Boundary.
(Member) Function Pointers as Template Arguments.
The Curiously Recurring Template Pattern.
Explicitly Managing the Overload Set.
The "sizeof Trick".
10. Domain-Specific Embedded Languages.
A Little Language.
Goes a Long Way.
DSLs, Inside Out.
C++ as the Host Language.
Blitz++ and Expression Templates.
The Boost Spirit Library.
11. A DSEL DesignWalkthrough.
Finite State Machines.
Framework Design Goals.
Framework Interface Basics.
Choosing a DSL.
Appendix A. An Introduction to Preprocessor Metaprogramming.
Fundamental Abstractions of the Preprocessor.
Preprocessor Library Structure.
Preprocessor Library Abstractions.
Appendix B. The typename and template Keywords.
Appendix C. Compile-Time Performance.
The Computational Model.
Managing Compilation Time.
Appendix D. MPL Portability Summary.
In 1998 Dave had the privilege of attending a workshop in Generic Programming at Dagstuhl Castle in Germany. Near the end of theworkshop, a very enthusiastic Kristof Czarnecki and Ullrich Eisenecker (of Generative Programming fame) passed out a few pages of C++ source code that they billed as a complete Lisp implementation built out of C++ templates. At the time it appeared to Dave to be nothing more than a curiosity, a charming but impractical hijacking of the template system to prove that you can write programs that execute at compile time. He never suspected that one day he would see a role for metaprogramming in most of his day-to-day programming jobs. In many ways, that collection of templates was the precursor to the Boost Metaprogramming Library (MPL): It may have been the first library designed to turn compile-time C++ from an ad hoc collection of "template tricks" into an example of disciplined and readable software engineering. With the availability of tools to write and understand metaprograms at a high level, we've since found that using these techniques is not only practical, but easy, fun, and often astoundingly powerful.
Despite the existence of numerous real systems built with template metaprogramming and the MPL, many people still consider metaprogramming to be other-worldly magic, and often as something to be avoided in day-to-day production code. If you've never done any metaprogramming, it may not even have an obvious relationship to the work you do. With this book, we hope to lift the veil of mystery, so that you get an understanding not only of how metaprogramming is done, but also why and when. The best part is that while much of the mystery will have dissolved, we think you'll still find enough magic left in the subject to stay as inspired about it as we are.Making the Most of This Book
The first few chapters of this book lay the conceptual foundation you'll need for most everything else we cover, and chapters generally build on material that has come before. That said, feel free to skip ahead for any reason—we've tried to make that possible by providing cross-references when we use terms introduced earlier on.
Chapter 10, Domain-Specific Embedded Languages, is an exception to the rule that later chapters depend on earlier ones. It focuses mostly on concepts, and only appears late in the book because at that point you'll have learned the tools and techniques to put Domain-Specific Embedded Languages into play in real code. If you only remember one chapter by the time you're done, make it that one.
Near the end of many chapters, you'll find a Details section that summarizes key ideas. These sections usually add new material that deepens the earlier discussion,* so even if you are inclined to skim them the first time through, we suggest you refer back to them later.
We conclude most chapters with exercises designed to help you develop both your programming and conceptual muscles. Those marked with asterisks are expected to be more of a workout than the others. Not all exercises involve writing code—some could be considered "essay questions"—and you don't have to complete them in order to move on to later chapters. We do suggest you look through them, give a little thought to how you'd answer each one, and try your hand at one or two; it's a great way to gain confidence with what you've just read.Supplementary Material
This book comes with a companion CD that supplies the following items in electronic form
- Sample code from the book.
- A release of the Boost C++ libraries. Boost has become known for high-quality, peer-reviewed, portable, generic, and freely reusable C++ libraries. We make extensive use of one Boost library throughout the book—the Boost Metaprogramming Library (MPL)—and we discuss several others.
- A complete MPL reference manual, in HTML and PDF form.
- Boost libraries discussed in this book that are not yet part of an official release.
index.html file at the top level of the CD will provide you
with a convenient guide to all of its contents. Additional and updated material,
including the inevitable errata, will appear on the book's Web site: http://www.boost-consulting.com/mplbook.
You'll also find a place there to report any mistakes you might find.
To compile any of the examples, just put the CD's
boost 1 32 0/
directory into your compiler's
The libraries we present in this book go to great lengths to hide the problems of less-than-perfect compilers, so it's unlikely that you'll have trouble with the examples we present here. That said, we divide C++ compilers roughly into three categories.
A. Those with mostly conforming template
implementations. On these compilers, the examples and libraries "just work."
Almost anything released since 2001, and a few compilers released before then,
fall into this category.
B. Those that can be made to work, but require some workarounds in user code.
C. Those that are too broken to use effectively for template metaprogramming.
Appendix D lists the compilers that are known to fall into each of these categories. For those in category B, Appendix D refers to a list of portability idioms. These idioms have been applied to the copies of the book's examples that appear on the accompanying CD, but to avoid distracting the majority of readers they don't appear in the main text.
The CD also contains a portability table with a detailed report of how various compilers are doing with our examples. GCC is available free for most platforms, and recent versions have no problems handling the code we present here.
Even if you have a relatively modern compiler from category A, it might be a good idea to grab a copy of GCC with which to cross-check your code. Often the easiest way to decipher an inscrutable error message is to see what some other compiler has to say about your program. If you find yourself struggling with error messages as you try to do the exercises, you might want to skip ahead and read the first two sections of Chapter 8, which discusses how to read and manage diagnostics.
And now, on to C++ Template Metaprogramming!
— Dave and Aleksey
* We borrowed this idea from Andrew Koenig and Barbara Moo's Accelerated C++: Practical Programming By Example.
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