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Authored by two leading investigators, this book presents a thorough and authoritative overview of this multifaceted field of science. Pathogenic bacteria have been evolving and spreading resistance to diverse classes of antibiotics. As a result, we risk losing our ability to control and treat infectious diseases. Understanding antibiotic resistance, therefore, is becoming increasingly essential for a broad audience of healthcare professionals, biomedical and public health researchers, students, and policymakers. The authors answer questions such as: What is resistance? How does it emerge? How do common human activities contribute to resistance? What can we do about it? How can we strengthen our “first lines of defense” against resistance? Are there better ways to discover new antibiotics? What unique issues are associated with MRSA and viral influenza? In addition to defining and evaluating one of the most important emerging threats to public health, the authors explain what can be done to minimize risks to public health, and to preserve and extend the effectiveness of existing and new antibiotics.
Chapter 1 Introduction to the Resistance Problem 1
Chapter 2 Working with Pathogens 17
Chapter 3 A Survey of Antibiotics 31
Chapter 4 Dosing to Cure 55
Chapter 5 Emergence of Resistance 73
Chapter 6 Movement of Resistance Genes Among Pathogens 91
Chapter 7 Transmission of Resistant Disease 105
Chapter 8 Surveillance 125
Chapter 9 Making New Antibiotics 139
Chapter 10 Restricting Antibiotic Use and Optimizing Dosing 149
Chapter 11 Influenza and Antibiotic Resistance 167
Chapter 12 Avoiding Resistant Pathogens 177
Afterword A Course of Action 203
Appendix A Molecules of Life 207
Appendix B Microbial Life Forms 221
Literature Cited 233