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This chapter is from the book

This chapter is from the book

12.3. Using the Library: A Text-Query Program

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To conclude our discussion of the library, we’ll implement a simple text-query program. Our program will let a user search a given file for words that might occur in it. The result of a query will be the number of times the word occurs and a list of lines on which that word appears. If a word occurs more than once on the same line, we’ll display that line only once. Lines will be displayed in ascending order—that is, line 7 should be displayed before line 9, and so on.

For example, we might read the file that contains the input for this chapter and look for the word element. The first few lines of the output would be

element occurs 112 times
   (line 36) A set element contains only a key;
   (line 158) operator creates a new element
   (line 160) Regardless of whether the element
   (line 168) When we fetch an element from a map, we
   (line 214) If the element is not found, find returns

followed by the remaining 100 or so lines in which the word element occurs.

12.3.1. Design of the Query Program

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A good way to start the design of a program is to list the program’s operations. Knowing what operations we need can help us see what data structures we’ll need. Starting from requirements, the tasks our program must do include the following:

  • When it reads the input, the program must remember the line(s) in which each word appears. Hence, the program will need to read the input a line at a time and break up the lines from the input file into its separate words
  • When it generates output,
  • – The program must be able to fetch the line numbers associated with a given word
  • – The line numbers must appear in ascending order with no duplicates
  • – The program must be able to print the text appearing in the input file at a given line number.

These requirements can be met quite neatly by using various library facilities:

  • We’ll use a vector<string> to store a copy of the entire input file. Each line in the input file will be an element in this vector. When we want to print a line, we can fetch the line using its line number as the index.
  • We’ll use an istringstream (§ 8.3, p. 321) to break each line into words.
  • We’ll use a set to hold the line numbers on which each word in the input appears. Using a set guarantees that each line will appear only once and that the line numbers will be stored in ascending order.
  • We’ll use a map to associate each word with the set of line numbers on which the word appears. Using a map will let us fetch the set for any given word.

For reasons we’ll explain shortly, our solution will also use shared_ptrs.

Data Structures

Although we could write our program using vector, set, and map directly, it will be more useful if we define a more abstract solution. We’ll start by designing a class to hold the input file in a way that makes querying the file easy. This class, which we’ll name TextQuery, will hold a vector and a map. The vector will hold the text of the input file; the map will associate each word in that file to the set of line numbers on which that word appears. This class will have a constructor that reads a given input file and an operation to perform the queries.

The work of the query operation is pretty simple: It will look inside its map to see whether the given word is present. The hard part in designing this function is deciding what the query function should return. Once we know that a word was found, we need to know how often it occurred, the line numbers on which it occurred, and the corresponding text for each of those line numbers.

The easiest way to return all those data is to define a second class, which we’ll name QueryResult, to hold the results of a query. This class will have a print function to print the results in a QueryResult.

Sharing Data between Classes

Our QueryResult class is intended to represent the results of a query. Those results include the set of line numbers associated with the given word and the corresponding lines of text from the input file. These data are stored in objects of type TextQuery.

Because the data that a QueryResult needs are stored in a TextQuery object, we have to decide how to access them. We could copy the set of line numbers, but that might be an expensive operation. Moreover, we certainly wouldn’t want to copy the vector, because that would entail copying the entire file in order to print (what will usually be) a small subset of the file.

We could avoid making copies by returning iterators (or pointers) into the TextQuery object. However, this approach opens up a pitfall: What happens if the TextQuery object is destroyed before a corresponding QueryResult? In that case, the QueryResult would refer to data in an object that no longer exists.

This last observation about synchronizing the lifetime of a QueryResult with the TextQuery object whose results it represents suggests a solution to our design problem. Given that these two classes conceptually “share” data, we’ll use shared_ptrs (§ 12.1.1, p. 450) to reflect that sharing in our data structures.

Using the TextQuery Class

When we design a class, it can be helpful to write programs using the class before actually implementing the members. That way, we can see whether the class has the operations we need. For example, the following program uses our proposed TextQuery and QueryResult classes. This function takes an ifstream that points to the file we want to process, and interacts with a user, printing the results for the given words:

void runQueries(ifstream &infile)
{
    // infile is an ifstream that is the file we want to query
    TextQuery tq(infile);  //  store the file and build the query map
    // iterate with the user: prompt for a word to find and print results
    while (true) {
        cout << "enter word to look for, or q to quit: ";
        string s;
        // stop if we hit end-of-file on the input or if a 'q' is entered
        if (!(cin >> s) || s == "q") break;
        // run the query and print the results
        print(cout, tq.query(s)) << endl;
    }
}

We start by initializing a TextQuery object named tq from a given ifstream. The TextQuery constructor reads that file into its vector and builds the map that associates the words in the input with the line numbers on which they appear.

The while loop iterates (indefinitely) with the user asking for a word to query and printing the related results. The loop condition tests the literal true (§ 2.1.3, p. 41), so it always succeeds. We exit the loop through the break (§ 5.5.1, p. 190) after the first if. That if checks that the read succeeded. If so, it also checks whether the user entered a q to quit. Once we have a word to look for, we ask tq to find that word and then call print to print the results of the search.

12.3.2. Defining the Query Program Classes

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We’ll start by defining our TextQuery class. The user will create objects of this class by supplying an istream from which to read the input file. This class also provides the query operation that will take a string and return a QueryResult representing the lines on which that string appears.

The data members of the class have to take into account the intended sharing with QueryResult objects. The QueryResult class will share the vector representing the input file and the sets that hold the line numbers associated with each word in the input. Hence, our class has two data members: a shared_ptr to a dynamically allocated vector that holds the input file, and a map from string to shared_ptr<set>. The map associates each word in the file with a dynamically allocated set that holds the line numbers on which that word appears.

To make our code a bit easier to read, we’ll also define a type member (§ 7.3.1, p. 271) to refer to line numbers, which are indices into a vector of strings:

class QueryResult; // declaration needed for return type in the query function
class TextQuery {
public:
    using line_no = std::vector<std::string>::size_type;
    TextQuery(std::ifstream&);
    QueryResult query(const std::string&) const;
private:
    std::shared_ptr<std::vector<std::string>> file;  // input file
    // map of each word to the set of the lines in which that word appears
    std::map<std::string,
             std::shared_ptr<std::set<line_no>>> wm;
};

The hardest part about this class is untangling the class names. As usual, for code that will go in a header file, we use std:: when we use a library name (§ 3.1, p. 83). In this case, the repeated use of std:: makes the code a bit hard to read at first. For example,

std::map<std::string, std::shared_ptr<std::set<line_no>>> wm;

is easier to understand when rewritten as

map<string, shared_ptr<set<line_no>>> wm;

The TextQuery Constructor

The TextQuery constructor takes an ifstream, which it reads a line at a time:

// read the input file and build the map of lines to line numbers
TextQuery::TextQuery(ifstream &is): file(new vector<string>)
{
    string text;
    while (getline(is, text)) {       // for each line in the file
        file->push_back(text);        // remember this line of text
        int n = file->size() - 1;     // the current line number
        istringstream line(text);     // separate the line into words
        string word;
        while (line >> word) {        // for each word in that line
            // if word isn't already in wm, subscripting adds a new entry
            auto &lines = wm[word]; // lines is a shared_ptr
            if (!lines) // that pointer is null the first time we see word
                lines.reset(new set<line_no>); // allocate a new set
            lines->insert(n);      // insert this line number
        }
    }
}

The constructor initializer allocates a new vector to hold the text from the input file. We use getline to read the file a line at a time and push each line onto the vector. Because file is a shared_ptr, we use the -> operator to dereference file to fetch the push_back member of the vector to which file points.

Next we use an istringstream (§ 8.3, p. 321) to process each word in the line we just read. The inner while uses the istringstream input operator to read each word from the current line into word. Inside the while, we use the map subscript operator to fetch the shared_ptr<set> associated with word and bind lines to that pointer. Note that lines is a reference, so changes made to lines will be made to the element in wm.

If word wasn’t in the map, the subscript operator adds word to wm (§ 11.3.4, p. 435). The element associated with word is value initialized, which means that lines will be a null pointer if the subscript operator added word to wm. If lines is null, we allocate a new set and call reset to update the shared_ptr to which lines refers to point to this newly allocated set.

Regardless of whether we created a new set, we call insert to add the current line number. Because lines is a reference, the call to insert adds an element to the set in wm. If a given word occurs more than once in the same line, the call to insert does nothing.

The QueryResult Class

The QueryResult class has three data members: a string that is the word whose results it represents; a shared_ptr to the vector containing the input file; and a shared_ptr to the set of line numbers on which this word appears. Its only member function is a constructor that initializes these three members:

class QueryResult {
friend std::ostream& print(std::ostream&, const QueryResult&);
public:
    QueryResult(std::string s,
                std::shared_ptr<std::set<line_no>> p,
                std::shared_ptr<std::vector<std::string>> f):
        sought(s), lines(p), file(f) { }
private:
    std::string sought;  // word this query represents
    std::shared_ptr<std::set<line_no>> lines; // lines it's on
    std::shared_ptr<std::vector<std::string>> file; // input file
};

The constructor’s only job is to store its arguments in the corresponding data members, which it does in the constructor initializer list (§ 7.1.4, p. 265).

The query Function

The query function takes a string, which it uses to locate the corresponding set of line numbers in the map. If the string is found, the query function constructs a QueryResult from the given string, the TextQuery file member, and the set that was fetched from wm.

The only question is: What should we return if the given string is not found? In this case, there is no set to return. We’ll solve this problem by defining a local static object that is a shared_ptr to an empty set of line numbers. When the word is not found, we’ll return a copy of this shared_ptr:

QueryResult
TextQuery::query(const string &sought) const
{
    // we'll return a pointer to this set if we don't find sought
    static shared_ptr<set<line_no>> nodata(new set<line_no>);
    // use find and not a subscript to avoid adding words to wm!
    auto loc = wm.find(sought);
    if (loc == wm.end())
        return QueryResult(sought, nodata, file); // not found
    else
        return QueryResult(sought, loc->second, file);
}

Printing the Results

The print function prints its given QueryResult object on its given stream:

ostream &print(ostream & os, const QueryResult &qr)
{
    // if the word was found, print the count and all occurrences
    os << qr.sought << " occurs " << qr.lines->size() << " "
       << make_plural(qr.lines->size(), "time", "s") << endl;
    // print each line in which the word appeared
    for (auto num : *qr.lines) // for every element in the set
        // don't confound the user with text lines starting at 0
        os << "\t(line " << num + 1 << ") "
           << *(qr.file->begin() + num) << endl;
    return os;
}

We use the size of the set to which the qr.lines points to report how many matches were found. Because that set is in a shared_ptr, we have to remember to dereference lines. We call make_plural (§ 6.3.2, p. 224) to print time or times, depending on whether that size is equal to 1.

In the for we iterate through the set to which lines points. The body of the for prints the line number, adjusted to use human-friendly counting. The numbers in the set are indices of elements in the vector, which are numbered from zero. However, most users think of the first line as line number 1, so we systematically add 1 to the line numbers to convert to this more common notation.

We use the line number to fetch a line from the vector to which file points. Recall that when we add a number to an iterator, we get the element that many elements further into the vector (§ 3.4.2, p. 111). Thus, file->begin() + num is the numth element after the start of the vector to which file points.

Note that this function correctly handles the case that the word is not found. In this case, the set will be empty. The first output statement will note that the word occurred 0 times. Because *res.lines is empty. the for loop won’t be executed.

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