PCS (Personal Communication Systems) will provide the convenience of FAX, Email and voice mail in a package similar to cellular phones. This book describes both Personal Communication Systems and mobile networks — and as they are envisioned for the future. KEY TOPICS: The first half of this book covers the theory of wireless communications, presenting the historical background of wireless telephony and the evolution of wireless technologies in the U.S. and Europe. The second half of the book presents the analog and digital (cellular and PCS) systems used in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. MARKET: For wireless engineers and those interested in marketing wireless products in the United States.
(NOTE: Each chapter contains an Introduction, Summary, Problems and References.)
WIRELESS AND PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS.1. An Overview of Wireless Technologies.
Historical Background. Standards. Vision of PCS.2. An Overview of Cellular Systems.
Concept of Cellular Communications. First-Generation Cellular Systems. Technologies for Second-Generation Cellular Systems. Cordless Phones and Telepoint Systems. Second-Generation Cellular Systems. Second- Generation-Plus PCS Systems. Vision of the Third-Generation Systems.3. Access Technologies.
Narrowband Channelized Systems. Wideband Systems. Comparisons of FDMA, TDMA, and DS-CDMA. Capacity of a DS-CDMA System. Comparison of DS-CDMA and FDMA/TDMA System Capacity.4. Fundamentals of Radio Communications.
Radio-Wave Propagation. Multipath Characteristics of a Radio Wave. Capacity of a Communication Channel. Propagation Losses in Built-up Areas.5. Fundamentals of Cellular Communications.
Cellular System. Geometry of a Hexagonal Cell. Cochannel Interference Ratio. Cellular System Design in Worst-Case Scenario with an Omnidirectional Antenna. Cochannel Interference Reduction with the Use of Directional Antennas. Directional Antennas in Seven-Cell Reuse Pattern. Cell Splitting. Registration. Terminal Authentication. Handoff.6. Digital Modulation Techniques.
Baseband Signaling. Modulation Techniques. Demodulation Issues.7. Antennas, Diversity, and Link Analysis.
Objectives of a Cellular System Antenna. Antenna Gain. Free Space Path Loss. Receiver Noise. The Path Loss Over a Reflecting Surface. The Relationship between Directivity, Gain, and Beamwidth. Diversity Reception. Basic Combining Methods. Types of Diversity. Examples of Base Station and Mobile Antennas.8. North American Cellular and PCS Systems.
PCS Reference Models. 8.3 Services 8.4 Operation of a PCS System 8.5 Air Interface Unique Capabilities 8.6 Handoffs9. European and Japanese Cellular Systems and North American PCS1900.
GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). Objectives of a GSM PLMN. GSM PLMN Services. GSM Architecture. GSM Channel and Frame Structure. GSM Speech Processing. GSM Call Flow Scenarios. MSC Performance. North American PCS1900. Japanese Digital Cellular (JDC) System.10. Security and Privacy in Wireless Systems.
Security and Privacy Needs of a Wireless System. Methods and Procedures of Providing Privacy and Security in Wireless Systems.11. Network Management for PCS and Cellular Systems.
Goals for PCS Management. Management Requirements for PCS. OAM&P Standards for PCS and Cellular Network. Telecommunications Management Network. OSI Management. PCS Information Model.12. Interworking in Wireless Systems.
Speech Coding Interworking. Data Interworking. Signaling, Numbering, and Routing Interworking. Security and Authentication Interworking. Basic Services Interworking. Roaming between Similar Systems. Roaming between Dissimilar Systems. Emergency Calling Interworking. Billing Interworking.13. Design of a Wireless System: A Case Study.
Planning and Engineering a Cellular Radio System. Outline of the Engineering Procedure. Frequency Reuse and Channel Group Assignments. Considerations for a Start-Up System. The Process of Growing a Cellular System. Traffic Calculations for a Cellular and PCS System.14. Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) Network.
CDPD Network Defined. The Network Architecture for CDPD. CDPD Protocols. CDPD Capabilities and Services.15. Packet Radio Systems.
Packet Radio Basics. The ARDIS Packet Radio Network. The RAM Mobile Data Packet Radio Network. Simple Packet Networks Using AX.25. The Network Operating System and TCP/IP.Appendix A. Channel Coding.
Introduction. Hamming Code. BCH Codes. Reed-Solomon Codes.Appendix B. Orthogonal Functions.
The generation that grew up watching the characters on "Star Trek" speaking to each other and sending data over handheld, pocket-sized personal communicators expects to have such devices made available to them. Personal Communications Services (PCS) promise to deliver on that expectation.
The revolution in several technologies over the last two decades makes PCS feasible.
The astounding advances in low-cost, very large-scale integrated (VLSI) digital circuits, especially microprocessors and digital signal processors.
The advances in highly efficient solid-state radio frequency (RF) circuitry capable of operating in 1-10 gigahertz (GHz) bands.
The continued improvement in rechargeable batteries: * Advances in spread-spectrum communications. * The conversion of the telephone network to stored program (computer) controlled systems communicating by a special packet data network.
At the same time socio-economic factors have produced the demand for PCS. These factors include: * An increasing demand for higher white-collar productivity, to match the gains seen on the factory floor * An increasing need to work out of the office (at home or on the road) * An ever increasing demand for personal mobility * An increasing dependence on FAX, personal computers, electronic mail (E-mail), and centralized databases * Business recognizing timeliness as a source of competitive advantage * The precipitous drop in the cost of mobile communications
Technological revolutions result from the confluence of technological availability and customer needs and demands; PCS is the next such revolution.
This book describes the emerging Personal Communications Network (PCN) and PCS being envisioned. It discusses the recent history of underlying technologies that are being used to synthesize PCN and delineates the alternative approaches being consider ed. Although the primary focus is on the U.S. technologies, we also cover wireless technologies used in Europe and Japan.
This book can be used by the telecommunication managers engaged in managing wireless/PCS networks with little or no technical background in wireless technologies; practicing communication engineers involved in the design of wireless/PCS systems, and senior/graduate students in electrical, telecommunication, or computer engineering planning to pursue a career of a telecommunication engineer. We suggest material in chapters 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 for the telecommunication managers. The practic ing design engineer in telecommunications needs to cover the entire book in order to become proficient in the wireless/PCS technologies. The first seven chapters of the book deal with the history and theoretical aspects of wireless technology. Chapte rs 8 through 13 deal with the design aspects of the wireless/PCS system. Chapters 14 and 15 provide a general background in wireless data. If the book is used for students with a general background in electromagnetic field theory and digital systems, we suggest using the material in chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 in the first semester and chapters 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 in the second semester.
Chapter 1 presents the historical background of wireless communications starting from 1946 and examines the evolution of wireless technologies in the United States and Europe. Chapter 2 discusses the first- and second-generation cellular systems used in the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this chapter we also examine the potential problems associated with the access technology for the second-generation-plus PCS system s and provide the vision of the third-generation PCS system.
Chapter 3 concentrates on the narrowband channelized and wideband non- channelized wireless communication systems. In this chapter, we focus on access technologies from capacity, performance, and spectral efficiency viewpoint.
Chapter 4 presents propagation and multipath characteristics of a radio wave. The concepts of delay spread and intersymbol interference are given. We also present several empirical and semiempirical models used to calculate path losses in urban, subu rban, and rural environments.
Chapter 5 gives the fundamentals of cellular communications. We develop a relationship between the reuse ratio and cluster size for the hexagonal cell geometry and study the cochannel interference for the omnidirectional and sectorized cell site. Chapter 6 deals with the digital modulation techniques and presents the modulation schemes used for cellular/wireless communications.
Chapter 7 discusses antennas and diversity. In this chapter we present different methods used to combine signals in the multipath environment.
Chapter 8 presents the analog and digital systems used in the United States. We also discuss the various air interfaces that are standardized for PCS in the United States. We provide typical call flows for origination, termination, handoff, and so on . The material in this chapter is extracted from the various standards for cellular and PCS available at the time of this writing, and it provides an end- to-end view of services.We suggest consulting the appropriate standards in order to be current. Chapter 9 presents an overview of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) system as described in the European Telecommunication Standard Institute-(ETSIs) recommendations. A brief description of Japanese Digital Cellular (JDC) system is also given. The chapter also addresses PCS 1900, a derivative of GSM, for PCS application in the United States. Chapter 10 deals with the security issues of the wireless and PCS systems and focuses on the privacy and authentication schemes used in the U.S. and European systems.
Chapter 11 discusses the management of the PCS and cellular networks. In this chapter we present requirements for accounting management, fault management, performance management, configuration management, and security management for a PCS network. Chapter 12 presents the interworking and interoperability issues and outlines the problems that must be addressed to achieve seamless communication.
Chapter 13 discusses the planning and engineering of a radio system. In this chapter we illustrate the process of growing a wireless system by considering a growth scenario with a frequency reuse factor of 7. We also present a traffic model of a wire less serving area for both cellular and PCS systems operating in a large metropolitan area. In Chapters 14 and 15, we discuss Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) and other packet-switched data systems such as ARDIS and RAM Mobile Data that are used for wireless data messaging services. These services use a dedicated network at the specializ ed mobile radio and cellular frequencies in the 800 to 900 megahertz (MHz) band. In this book we have provided several numerical examples to illustrate the concepts. A number of problems are also given at the end of several chapters that may be assigned as homework problems to the students.
During the preparation of this book, several of our coworkers and friends have provided constructive suggestions, and we would like to thank them. In particular we thank: Dan Brown, Kamilo Feher, Reed Fisher, Larry Gitten, Jim McEowen, Bruce McNair, Ray Pickholtz, and Tippure Sundresh for their comments. We also thank V. H. MacDonald for supplying the traffic tables for Appendix C. In addition, we extend our appreciation to AT&T Bell Laboratories and AT&T Network Systems management for supportin g this effort. We are grateful to Lisa Benintente, Carol Fitzgerald, Mary Klopman, and Suzanne Smith for preparing the figures. We thank the Prentice-Hall staff, in particular Karen Gettman, for providing the necessary support during the publication of this book.
Tables 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4, and 4.5 are copyrighted Pentech Press Ltd., used with permission. The material in chapter 4 Section 5 is adapted from ÒThe Mobile Radio Propagation ChannelÓ and copyrighted by Pentech Press Ltd, used with permission. Figures 8.1, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, and 8.17 are used with permission of the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), copyrighted by TIA.
Figures 8.2, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, 8.39, 8.40, 8.41, 8.42, and 8.44 and Tables 8.1, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.20, 8.21, B.1, B.2, B.3, B.4, B.4, B.6, B.7, B.8, B.9, B.10 are copyrighted by ATIS and used with permission.
Some material in chapter 9 on GSM is adapted from an AT&T Technical Education Center Course on GSM and used with permission. Material on Public Key cryptographic in chapter 10 is copyright 1994, AT&T, all rights reserved, reprinted with permission. Material in chapter 10, sections 1 and 2, is copyrighted by the IEEE and used with permission.
Material in chapter 14 on CDPD is adapted from the CDPD Forum and copyrighted by the CDPD Forum, used with permission. Material in chapter 15 on RAM Mobile Data is copyrighted RAM Mobile Data and used with permission.