Table of Contents
1. General Technical Reference.
PC Subsystem Components Quick Reference. The Motherboard and Its Components. Understanding Bits, Nibbles, and Bytes.
Standard Capacity Abbreviations and Meanings.
Glossary of Essential Terms.
PC99 Color Standards.
Hexadecimal/ASCII Conversions. 2. System Components and Configuration.
Processors and Their Data Bus Widths. Differences Between PC/XT and AT Systems. Intel and Compatible Processor Specifications. Troubleshooting Processor Problems. Motherboard Form Factors.
Baby-AT Motherboard. LPX Motherboard. ATX Motherboard. NLX Motherboard.
Which Motherboard Is Which? PC99 Color-Coding for Ports. Power Supplies.
LPX Versus ATX Power Supplies. Power Connectors for the Drive(s). Quick-Reference Chart for Troubleshooting Power Supplies.
30-Pin SIMM. 72-Pin SIMM. DIMMs. RDRAM. DDR SDRAM. Parity Versus Non-Parity Memory. Requirements for ECC Memory Use. Using the Divide by 3 Rule to Determine Parity Support. Using the Divide by 9 Rule to Determine Parity Support. Expanding Memory on a System. Memory Troubleshooting. Memory Usage Within the System. Hardware and Firmware Devices That Use Memory Addresses. Using Memory Addresses Beyond 1MB (0FFFFF). Determining Memory Address Ranges in Use.
Other Add-On Card Configuration Issues.
IRQs. DMA. Determining Actual IRQ and DMA Usage. I/O Port Addresses. Determining Actual I/O Address Ranges in Use. Troubleshooting Add-on Card Resource Conflicts.
ISA. EISA—A 32-bit Version of ISA. VL—Bus-A Faster 32-Bit Version of ISA. PCI. AGP. 3. BIOS Configurations and Upgrades.
What the BIOS Is and What It Does. When a BIOS Update Is Necessary.
Specific Tests to Determine Whether Your BIOS Needs an Update. Fixing BIOS Limitations—BIOS Fixes and Alternatives.
How BIOS Updates Are Performed. Where BIOS Updates Come From. Precautions to Take Before Updating a BIOS. How to Recover from a Failed BIOS Update Procedure. Plug-and-Play BIOS.
PnP BIOS Configuration Options. When to Use the PnP BIOS Configuration Options.
Other BIOS Troubleshooting Tips. Soft BIOS CPU Speed and Multiplier Settings. Determining Which BIOS You Have. Determining the Motherboard Manufacturer for BIOS Upgrades.
Identifying Motherboards with AMI BIOS. Identifying Motherboards with Award BIOS. Identifying Motherboards with Phoenix or Microid Research BIOS.
Accessing the BIOS Setup Programs. How the BIOS Reports Errors.
BIOS Beep Codes and Their Purposes. AMI BIOS Beep Codes. Award BIOS Beep Codes. Phoenix BIOS Beep Codes. IBM BIOS Beep and Alphanumeric Error Codes.
Microid Research Beep Codes. Reading BIOS Error Codes.
Onscreen Error Messages. Interpreting Error Codes and Messages.
BIOS Configuration Worksheet. 4. SCSI and IDE Hard Drives and Optical Drives.
Understanding Hard Disk Terminology.
Heads, Sectors per Track, and Cylinders. Hard Drive Heads. Sectors per Track. Cylinders.
IDE Hard Drive Identification. Master and Slave Drives. Breaking the 504MB (528-Million-Byte) Drive Barrier. Using LBA Mode.
When LBA Mode Is Necessary—and When Not to Use It. Problems with LBA Support in the BIOS. Dangers of Altering Translation Settings. Detecting Lack of LBA Mode Support in Your System. Using FDISK to Determine Compatibility Problems Between the Hard Disk and BIOS. Getting LBA and Extended Int13h Support for Your System. Determining Whether Your System Supports Extended Int13h. Drive Capacity Issues in Microsoft Windows 95.
Sources for BIOS Upgrades and Alternatives for Large IDE Hard Disk Support. Standard and Alternative Jumper Settings. Improving Hard Disk Speed. Ultra DMA.
UDMA/66 and UDMA/100 Issues.
Bus-Mastering Chipsets for IDE. Benefits of Manual Drive Typing. Troubleshooting IDE Installation. SCSI.
SCSI Types and Data Transfer Rates.
Single-Ended Versus Differential SCSI.
Low-Voltage Differential Devices.
Recognizing SCSI Interface Cables and Connectors.
8-Bit SCSI Centronics 50-Pin Connector. SCSI-2 High-Density Connector. SCSI-3 68-Pin P Cable. RAID Array, Hot Swappable 80-Pin Connector.
SCSI Drive and Device Configuration.
SCSI Device. SCSI Termination.
SCSI Configuration Troubleshooting. Hard Disk Preparation. Using FDISK.
Drive-Letter Size Limits. Large Hard Disk Support.
Benefits of Hard Disk Partitioning.
FAT-32 Versus FAT-16 Cluster Sizes. Converting FAT-16 Partition to FAT-32. NTFS Considerations and Default Cluster Sizes.
How FDISK and the Operating System Create and Allocate Drive Letters.
Assigning Drive Letters with FDISK.
High-Level (DOS) Format. Replacing an Existing Drive.
Drive Migration for MS-DOS Users. Drive Migration for Windows 9x/Me Users. XCOPY32 for Windows 9x Data Transfer.
Hard Disk Drive Troubleshooting and Repair. Optical Drive Interface Types. MS-DOS Command-Line Access to CD-ROM Drives for Reloading Windows. Troubleshooting Optical Drives.
Failure Reading. Failure Reading CD-R and CD-RW Disks in a CD-ROM or DVD Drive. IDE/ATAPI CD-ROM Drive Runs Slowly. Trouble Using Bootable CDs. 5. Floppy, Removable, Tape, and Flash Memory Storage.
Where Floppy Drives Fail—and Simple Fixes. The Drive Cover. The Stepper Motor. Interface Circuit Boards. Read/Write Heads. Floppy Drive Hardware Resources. Don't Use a Floppy Drive While Running a Tape Backup. Disk Drive Power and Data Connectors. Floppy Drive Troubleshooting. Common Floppy Drive Error Messages—Causes and Solutions.
Removable Storage Drives.
Sources for "Orphan" Drive Media, Repairs, Drivers, and Support. Emergency Access to Iomega Zip Drive Files in Case of Disaster. Troubleshooting Removable Media Drives.
Types of Flash Memory Devices. Tape Backup Drives and Media.
Common Tape Backup Standards. Travan Tape Drives and Media. Proprietary Versions of Travan Technology. Getting Extra Capacity with Verbatim QIC-EX Tape Media. OnStream ADR Tape Drives and Media. Choosing the Best High-Performance Backup Technology. Successful Tape Backup and Restore Procedures. Tape Drive Troubleshooting. Tape Retensioning. 6. Serial Ports and Modems.
Understanding Serial Ports.
Pinouts for Serial Ports. Current Loop Serial Devices and 25-Pin Serial Ports.
UART Types. Identifying Your System UART.
High-Speed Serial Ports (ESP and Super ESP). Upgrading the UART Chip. Serial Port Configuration.
Avoiding Conflicts with Serial Ports. Troubleshooting I/O Ports in Windows 9x. Advanced Diagnostics Using Loopback Testing. Loopback Plug Pinouts—Serial Ports.
Modems and Serial Ports. Modem Modulation Standards. 56Kbps Standards. Upgrading from x2 or K56flex to V.90 with Flash Upgrades. External Versus Internal Modems. Modem Troubleshooting. Pinouts for External Modem Cable (9-Pin at PC).
Win98SE, Windows 2000, Windows Me, and ICS.
Requirements for ICS. Overview of the Configuration Process. 7. Parallel Ports, Printers, Scanners, and Drives.
Parallel Port Connectors.
Parallel Port Performance. Parallel Port Configurations. Testing Parallel Ports. Troubleshooting Parallel Ports.
Hewlett-Packard PCL Versions. Comparing Host-Based to PDL-Based Printers. Printer Hardware Problems. Printer Connection Problems. Printer Driver and Application Problems.
Troubleshooting Parallel Port and Other Types of Scanners. Parallel Port Drives. 8. USB and IEEE-1394 Ports and Devices.
Universal Serial Bus.
USB Port Identification. Pinout for the USB Connector. Typical USB Port Locations. Adding USB Ports to Your Computer. Prerequisites for Using USB Ports and Peripherals. Troubleshooting USB Ports. Using USB Hubs with Legacy (Serial, Parallel, and PS/2) Ports. Online Sources for Additional USB Support. USB 2.0.
Adding IEEE-1394 Ports to Your Computer. Comparing USB and IEEE-1394. Troubleshooting IEEE-1394 Host Adapters and Devices. IEEE-1394 and Linux. Online Sources for Additional IEEE-1394 Support. 9. Keyboards, Mice, and Input Devices.
The 101-Key Enhanced Keyboard. 101-Key Versus 102-Key Keyboards. The 104-Key Windows Keyboard.
Using Windows Keys.
Keyboard-Only Commands for Windows 9x/NT4/2000/Me with Any Keyboard.
Standard Versus Portable Keyboards. Keyswitch Types. Cleaning a Foam-Element Keyswitch. Adjusting Keyboard Parameters in Windows. Keyboard Layouts and Scan Codes. Keyboard Connectors.
Keyboard Connector Signals.
USB Keyboard Requirements. Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair. Keyboard Connector Voltage and Signal Specifications. Keyboard Error Codes. Mice and Pointing Devices.
Mouse Motion Detection Methods. Pointing Device Interface Types. Wireless Mouse Types. Software Drivers for the Mouse. Alternative Pointing Devices.
Mouse Troubleshooting. 10. Video and Audio.
Selecting a Monitor Size. Monitor Resolution.
CRTs Versus LCDs. Common Monitor Resolutions.
LCD Versus CRT Display Size. Monitor Power Management Modes. VGA Video Connector Pinouts.
VGA DB-15 Analog Connector Pinout. Digital Flat Panel Pinouts. Digital Visual Interface Pinouts.
VGA Video Display Modes. Video RAM. Memory, Resolution, and Color Depth. Determining the Amount of RAM on Your Display Card. Local-Bus Video Standards. RAMDAC. Refresh Rates.
Adjusting the Refresh Rate of the Video Card. Comparing Video Cards with the Same Chipset.
Setting Up Multiple Monitor Support in Windows 98/Me/2000.
System Configuration Issues for Multiple-Monitor Support.
Video Card and Chipset Makers Model Reference.
Multimedia Devices. Troubleshooting Video Capture Devices.
Testing a Monitor with Common Applications.
Audio I/O Connectors.
Connectors for Advanced Features.
Sound Quality Standards. Configuring Sound Cards.
PCI Versus ISA Sound Cards. Multifunction (Modem and Sound) Cards.
Troubleshooting Audio Hardware.
Hardware (Resource) Conflicts. Detecting Resource Conflicts. Most Common Causes of Hardware Conflicts with Sound Card. Freeing Up IRQ 5 for Sound Card Use While Still Printing. Other Sound Card Problems. 11. Networking.
Client/Server Versus Peer-to-Peer Networking. Choosing Network Hardware and Software.
NIC. UTP Cable. Hub. Software.
IP and TCP/IP.
Selecting a Network Data-Link Protocol (Specification). Network Cable Connectors. Wire Pairing for Twisted-Pair Cabling.
Making Your Own UTP Cables.
Network Cabling Distance Limitations. Cabling Standards for Fast Ethernet. Specialized Network Options.
What About Home Networking? Wireless Networking Standards. Wireless Network Configuration and Selection Issues.
TCP/IP Network Protocol Settings.
TCP/IP Protocol Worksheet.
Troubleshooting Network Software Setup. Troubleshooting Networks in Use. Troubleshooting TCP/IP.
Direct Cable Connections.
Null Modem and Parallel Data-Transfer Cables. Direct Connect Software. Troubleshooting Direct Cable Connections. 12. Operating System Installation and Diagnostic Testing.
Installing an Operating System on an Empty Drive.
Installing MS-DOS. Installing Windows. Installing Windows. Installing Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000.
Upgrading an Operating System.
Installing to the Same Folder. Installing to a Different Folder. Installing to a Different Partition.
Checking for IRQ, DMA, I/O, and Memory Usage.
MS-DOS Using MSD. Windows 9x/2000/Me. Windows NT 4.0.
Software Toolkit. 13. Tools and Techniques.
General Information. Hardware Tools and Their Uses.
Tools of the Trade—Drive Installation. Tools of the Trade—Motherboard and Expansion Card Installation. Tools of the Trade—External Device and Networking Installation. Tools of the Trade—Data Transfer. Tools of the Trade—Cleaning and Maintenance. 14. Connector Quick Reference.
Serial Ports and Cables.
Parallel Ports. SCSI Ports. USB and IEEE-1394 (FireWire).
Video Ports. Video Cables.
Sound Card Ports.
Sound Card External Ports. Sound Card Internal Connectors.
Network and Modem Ports and Cables.
RJ-45 Port and Cable. RJ-11 Port and Cable Connector. Older Network Connectors. Index.