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Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 15th Edition

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Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, 15th Edition


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• Visually oriented students can quickly locate content by navigating these consistent chapter features
• An attention-getting chapter-opening Splash Spread interests students and sets the context for the chapter content that follows
• Applicable references to standards are at the beginning of each chapter
• An introductory Foundations section, set off by a topic heading tab at the top of the page for easy navigation, covers the drawing topic’s usage and importance, visualization tips, and theory related to the drawing techniques
• Detail Sections offer a “brass tacks” part of the book, where detailed explanations of drawing techniques, variations, and examples are organized into quick-read sections, each numbered for quick reference in the detailed Contents
• CAD at Work Sections include tips related to using the 2D or 3D CAD model to generate drawings
• Portfolio Sections offer examples of finished drawings that wrap up the chapter by showing real-world application of the chapter topics
• Set in bold italics on first reference, keywords are summarized at the end of the chapter, along with a Chapter Summary and Review Questions
• The excellent Giesecke problem sets feature updated exercises, including plastic and sheet metal parts, updated assembly drawings from CAD models, and sketching problems


  • Copyright 2017
  • Dimensions: 8-1/2" x 10-7/8"
  • Pages: 1024
  • Edition: 15th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-430641-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-430641-4

This full-color text offers a clear, complete introduction and detailed reference for creating 3D models and 2D documentation drawings. Building on its reputation as a trusted reference, this edition expands on the role that 3D CAD databases now play in design and documentation. Superbly integrated illustrations, text, step-by-step instructions, and navigation make it easier than ever to master key skills and knowledge. Throughout, the authors demonstrate 3D and 2D drawing skills and CAD usage in real-world work practice in today’s leading disciplines. They combine strong technical detail, real-world examples, and current standards, materials, industries, and processes–all in a format that is efficient, colorful, and visual.


  • Splash Spread: Appealing chapter opener provides context and motivation.
  • References and Web Links: Useful weblinks and standards provided upfront in each chapter.
  • Understanding Section: Foundational introductions, tabbed for easy navigation, outline each topic’s importance, use, visualization tips, and theory.
  • Detail Section: Detailed, well-tested explanations of drawing techniques, variations, and examples–organized into quick-read sections, numbered for easy reference.
  • CAD at Work Section: Breakout pages offer tips on generating drawings from 2D or 3D models.
  • Portfolio Section: Examples of finished drawings show how techniques are applied in the real world.
  • Key Words: Italicized on first reference, summarized after each chapter.           
  • Chapter: Summaries and Review Questions: Efficiently reinforce learning.
  • Exercises: Outstanding problem sets with updated exercises, including parts, assembly drawings from CAD models, sketching problems, and orthographic projections.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Chapter One The Worldwide Language for Graphic Design

Understanding the Role of Technical Drawings

1.1 Graphics Tools in Action

1.2 Rapid Prototyping

1.3 Drafting Standards

1.4 Creativity Techniques

1.5 Product Definition

1.6 Showing the Design Process in a Portfolio

Chapter TWO Layouts and Lettering

Understanding Projections

2.1 Alphabet of Lines

2.2 Freehand Lines

2.3 Measurement Systems

2.4 Drawing Scale

2.5 Specifying the Scale on a 


2.6 Lettering

2.7 Lettering Standards

2.8 Using Guidelines for Hand 


2.9 Vertical and Inclined Letters and Numerals41

2.10 Fractions

2.11 Spacing of Letters and Words

2.12 Lettering for Titles

2.13 Drawing Pencils

2.14 Templates

2.15 CAD Tools

2.16 Sketching and Drawing Media

2.17 Standard Sheets

2.18 Standard Layout Elements

2.19 Layouts

2.20 Planning Your Drawing or Sketch

Chapter Three Visualization and Sketching

Understanding Solid Objects

Understanding Sketching Techniques

3.1 Technique of Lines

3.2 Sketching Straight Lines

3.3 Sketching Circles, Arcs, and Ellipses

3.4 Maintaining Proportions

3.5 One-View Drawings

3.6 Pictorial Sketching

3.7 Projection Methods

3.8 Axonometric Projection

3.9 Isometric Projection

3.10 Isometric Drawing

3.11 Making an Isometric Drawing

3.12 Offset Location Measurements

Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces

3.13 Hidden Lines and Centerlines

3.14 Angles in Isometric

3.15 Irregular Objects

3.16 Curves in Isometric

3.17 True Ellipses in Isometric

3.18 Orienting Ellipses in Isometric Drawings

3.19 Drawing Isometric Cylinders

3.20 Screw Threads in Isometric

3.21 Arcs in Isometric

3.22 Spheres in Isometric

3.23 Oblique Sketches

3.24 Length of Receding Lines

3.25 Choice of Position in Oblique Drawings

3.26 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings1

3.27 Angles in Oblique Projection

3.28 Sketching Assemblies

3.29 Sketching Perspectives

3.30 Curves and Circles in Perspective

3.31 Shading

3.32 Computer Graphics

3.33 Drawing on Drawing

Chapter Four Geometry for Modeling and Design

Coordinates for 3D CAD Modeling

Geometric Entities130

4.1 Manually Bisecting a Line or Circular Arc

4.2 Drawing Tangents to Two Circles

4.3 Drawing an Arc Tangent to a Line or Arc and Through a Point

4.4 Bisecting an Angle

4.5 Drawing a Line Through a Point and Parallel to a Line

4.6 Drawing a Triangle With Sides Given

4.7 Drawing a Right Triangle With Hypotenuse and One Side Given

4.8 Laying Out an Angle

4.9 Drawing an Equilateral Triangle

4.10 Polygons

4.11 Drawing a Regular Pentagon

4.12 Drawing a Hexagon

4.13 Ellipses

4.14 Spline Curves

4.15 Geometric Relationships

4.16 Solid Primitives

4.17 Recognizing Symmetry

4.18 Extruded Forms

4.19 Revolved Forms

4.20 Irregular Surfaces

4.21 User Coordinate Systems

4.22 Transformations

Chapter Five Modeling and Design

Refinement and Modeling

Kinds of Models

5.1 2D Models

5.2 3D Models

5.3 Types of 3D Models

5.4 Constraint-Based Modeling

5.5 Constraints Define the Geometry

5.6 Planning Parts for Design Flexibility

5.7 Sketch Constraints

5.8 The Base Feature

5.9 Editing the Model

5.10 Constraint-Based Modeling Modes

5.11 Choosing the Right Modeling Method

Chapter Six Orthographic Projection

Understanding Projections

6.1 Hidden Line Technique

6.2 Precedence of Lines

6.3 Centerlines

6.4 Laying Out a Drawing

6.5 Developing Views from 3D Models

6.6 Visualization

6.7 Views of Surfaces

6.8 Normal Surfaces

6.9 Inclined Surfaces

6.10 Oblique Surfaces

6.11 Edges

6.12 Normal Edges

6.13 Inclined Edges

6.14 Oblique Edges

6.15 Parallel Edges

6.16 Angles

6.17 Vertices

6.18 Interpreting Points

6.19 Interpreting Lines

6.20 Similar Shapes of Surfaces

6.21 Interpreting Views

6.22 Models

6.23 Projecting a Third View

6.24 Becoming a 3D Visualizer

Chapter Seven 2D Drawing Representation

Practices for 2D Documentation Drawings

7.1 Visualizing and Drawing Complex Cylindrical Shapes

7.2 Cylinders When Sliced

7.3 Cylinders and Ellipses

7.4 Intersections and Tangencies

7.5 Fillets and Rounds

7.6 Runouts

7.7 Conventional Edges

7.8 Necessary Views

7.9 Partial Views

7.10 Alignment of Views

7.11 Removed Views

7.12 Right-Hand and Left-Hand Parts

7.13 Revolution Conventions

Chapter Eight Section Views

Understanding Sections

8.1 Placement of Section Views

8.2 Labeling Cutting Planes

8.3 Line Precedence

8.4 Rules for Lines in Section Views

8.5 Cutting-Plane Line Style

8.6 Section-Lining Technique

8.7 Half Sections

8.8 Broken Out Sections

8.9 Revolved Sections

8.10 Removed Sections

8.11 Offset Sections

8.12 Ribs in Section

8.13 Aligned Sections

8.14 Partial Views

8.15 Intersections in Sections

8.16 Conventional Breaks and Sections

8.17 Assembly Sections

Chapter Nine Auxiliary Views

Understanding Auxiliary Views

9.1 Using Triangles to Sketch Auxiliary Views

9.2 Using Grid Paper to Sketch Auxiliary Views

9.3 Using CAD to Create Auxiliary Views

9.4 Circles and Ellipses in Auxiliary Views

9.5 Hidden Lines in Auxiliary Views

9.6 Partial Auxiliary Views

9.7 Half Auxiliary Views

9.8 Reverse Construction

9.9 Auxiliary Sections

9.10 Viewing-Plane Lines and Arrows

9.11 Uses of Auxiliary Views

9.12 True Length of a Line

9.13 Point View of a Line

9.14 Edge View of a Plane

9.15 True Size of an Oblique Surface of an Oblique Surface

9.16 Dihedral Angles

Understanding Developments and Intersections

9.17 Developments

9.18 Hems and Joints for Sheet Metal and Other Materials

9.19 More Examples of Developments and Intersections

9.20 Transition Pieces

9.21 Triangulation

9.22 Developing a Transition Piece Connecting Rectangular Pipes on the Same Axis

9.23 Developing a Plane and a Sphere

9.24 Revolution

9.25 Primary and Successive Revolutions

9.26 True Length of a Line: Revolution Method

Chapter Ten Modeling for Manufacture and Assembly

Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service

10.1 Assembly Models

10.2 Assemblies and Design

10.3 Assemblies and Simulation

10.4 Parts for Assemblies

10.5 Using Your Model to Check Fits

10.6 Manufacturing Processes

10.7 Dos and Don’ts of Practical Design

10.8 Manufacturing Materials

10.9 Appearance, Service Life, and Recycling

10.10 Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish

10.11 Net-Shape Manufacturing

10.12 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

10.13 Shared Manufacturing

10.14 Manufacturing Methods and the Drawing

10.15 Modeling for Testing and Refinement

10.16 Determining Mass Properties

10.17 Exporting Data from the Database

10.18 Downstream Applications

10.19 Prototyping Your Design

Chapter Eleven Dimensioning 

Understanding Dimensioning

11.1 Lines Used in Dimensioning

11.2 Using Dimension and Extension Lines

11.3 Arrowheads

11.4 Leaders

11.5 Drawing Scale and Dimensioning

11.6 Direction of Dimension Values and Notes

11.7 Dimension Units

11.8 Millimeter Values

11.9 Decimal-Inch Values

11.10 Rules for Dimension Values

11.11 Rules for Rounding Decimal Dimension Values

11.12 Dual Dimensioning

11.13 Combination Units

11.14 Dimensioning Symbols

11.15 Placing and Showing Dimensions Legibly

11.16 Superfluous Dimensions

11.17 Dimensioning Angles

11.18 Dimensioning Arcs

11.19 Fillets and Rounds

11.20 Size Dimensioning: Prisms

11.21 Size Dimensioning: Cylinders

11.22 Size Dimensioning: Holes

11.23 Applying Standard Dimensioning Symbols

11.24 Dimensioning Counterbores and Spotfaces with Fillets

11.25 Dimensioning Triangular Prisms, Pyramids, and Cones

11.26 Dimensioning Curves

11.27 Dimensioning Curved Surfaces

11.28 Dimensioning Rounded-End Shapes

11.29 Dimensioning Threads

11.30 Dimensioning Tapers

11.31 Dimensioning Chamfers

11.32 Shaft Centers

11.33 Dimensioning Keyways

11.34 Dimensioning Knurls

11.35 Finish Marks

11.36 Surface Roughness

11.37 Location Dimensions

11.38 Mating Dimensions

11.39 Coordinate Dimensioning

11.40 Tabular Dimensions

11.41 Dimensioning for Numerically-Controlled Machining

11.42 Machine, Pattern, and Forging Dimensions

11.43 Sheet Metal Bends

11.44 Notes

11.45 Standards

11.46 Dos and Don’ts of Dimensioning

Chapter Twelve Tolerancing

Understanding Tolerance

12.1 Specifying Tolerances

12.2 General Tolerance Notes

12.3 Limit Tolerances

Single-Limit Dimensioning

12.4 Plus-or-Minus Tolerances

12.5 Tolerance Stacking

12.6 Using American National Standard Limits and Fit Tables

12.7 Tolerances and Machining Processes

12.8 Metric System of Tolerances and Fits

12.9 Preferred Sizes

12.10 Preferred Fits

12.11 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

12.12 Symbols for Tolerances of Position and Form

12.13 Datum Features

12.14 Positional Tolerances

12.15 Maximum Material Condition

12.16 Tolerances of Angles

12.17 Form Tolerances for Single Features

12.18 Orientations for Related Features

12.19 Using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

12.20 Tolerances and Digital Product Definition

12.21 Computer Graphics

Chapter Thirteen Threads, Fasteners, and Springs

Understanding Threads and Fasteners

13.1 Thread Notes

13.2 External Thread Symbols606

13.3 Internal Thread Symbols606

13.4 Detailed Representation: Metric, Unified, and American National Threads

13.5 Threads in Assembly

13.6 Modeling Thread

13.7 American National Standard Pipe Threads

13.8 Use of Phantom Lines

13.9 Tapped Holes

13.10 Bolts, Studs, and Screws

13.11 Standard Bolts and Nuts

13.12 Drawing Standard Bolts

13.13 Specifications for Bolts and Nuts

13.14 Locknuts and Locking Devices

13.15 Standard Cap Screws

13.16 Standard Machine Screws

13.17 Standard Set Screws

13.18 American National Standard Wood Screws

13.19 Miscellaneous Fasteners

13.20 Keys

13.21 Machine Pins

13.22 Rivets

13.23 Springs625

13.24 Drawing Helical Springs

13.25 Modeling Springs

Chapter Fourteen Working Drawings

Working Drawings or Construction Drawings

14.1 Subassemblies

14.2 Identification

14.3 Parts Lists

14.4 Assembly Sections

14.5 Working Drawing Assembly

14.6 Installation Assemblies

14.7 Check Assemblies

14.8 Working Drawing Formats

14.9 Drawing Numbers

14.10 Zoning

14.11 Checking Drawings

14.12 Drawing Revisions

14.13 Simplifying Drawings

14.14 Patent Drawings

Chapter Fifteen Drawing Control and Data Management

Documentation and the Design Database

15.1 Requirements for Engineering Documentation

15.2 Drawing Control Methods

15.3 Good Practices for Electronic Drawing Storage

15.4 Drawing Standards

15.5 Permission and Ownership

15.6 Backing Up Drawing Files

15.7 Storage Media

15.8 Using the 3D Design Database in Concurrent Engineering

15.9 Quality Management

15.10 Product Data Management

15.11 Managing Work Flow

15.12 Data Management and the Web

Chapter Sixteen Gears and Cams

Understanding Gears

16.1 Constructing a Base Circle

16.2 The Involute Tooth Shape

16.3 Approximate Involute Using Circular Arcs

16.4 Spacing Gear Teeth

16.5 Rack Teeth

16.6 Working Drawings of Spur Gears

16.7 Spur Gear Design

16.8 Worm Gears

16.9 Working Drawings of Worm Gears

16.10 Bevel Gears

16.11 Bevel Gear Definitions and Formulas

16.12 Working Drawings of Bevel Gears

16.13 Cams

16.14 Displacement Diagrams

16.15 Cam Profiles

16.16 Offset and Pivoted Cam Followers

16.17 Cylindrical Cams

16.18 Other Drive Devices

Chapter Seventeen Electronic Diagrams

Understanding Electronic Diagrams

17.1 Drawing Size, Format, and Title

17.2 Line Conventions and Lettering

17.3 Standard Symbols for Electronic Diagrams

17.4 Abbreviations

17.5 Grouping Parts

17.6 Arrangement of Electrical/Electronic Symbols

17.7 Connections and Crossovers

17.8 Interrupted Paths

17.9 Terminals

17.10 Color Coding

17.11 Division of Parts

17.12 Electron Tube Pin Identification

17.13 Reference Designations

17.14 Numerical Values

17.15 Functional Identification and Other Information

17.16 Integrated Circuits

17.17 Printed Circuits

17.18 Computer Graphics

Chapter Eighteen Structural Drawing

Structural Drawings

18.1 Wood Construction

18.2 Structural Steel

18.3 Structural Steel Shapes

18.4 Specifications

18.5 Welded and Bolted Connections

18.6 Riveted Connections

18.7 Frame Beam Connections

18.8 Welding

18.9 High-Strength Bolting for Structural Joints

18.10 Accuracy of Dimensions

18.11 Concrete Construction

18.12 Reinforced Concrete Drawings

18.13 Structural Clay Products

18.14 Stone Construction

Chapter Nineteen Landform Drawings

Understanding Landform Drawings 

19.1 Symbols

19.2 Bearings

19.3 Elevation

19.4 Contours

19.5 City Maps

19.6 Structure Location Plans

19.7 Highway Plans

Chapter Twenty Piping Drawings

Understanding Piping Drawings

20.1 Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe

20.2 Cast Iron Pipe

20.3 Seamless Brass and Copper Pipe

20.4 Copper Tubing

20.5 Plastic and Specialty Pipes

20.6 Pipe Fittings

20.7 Pipe Joints

20.8 Valves

20.9 American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping

Chapter Twenty-One

Welding Representation

Understanding Weldment Drawings

Understanding a Welding Symbol

21.1 Types of Welded Joints

21.2 Types of Welds

21.3 Welding Symbols

21.4 Fillet Welds

21.5 Groove Welds

21.6 Back or Backing Welds

21.7 Surface Welds

21.8 Plug and Slot Welds

21.9 Spot Welds

21.10 Seam Welds

21.11 Projection Welds

21.12 Flash and Upset Welds

21.13 Welding Applications

21.14 Welding Templates

21.15 Computer Graphics

CHAPTER Twenty-Two

Axonometric Projection

Understanding Axonometric Projection

22.1 Dimetric Projection

22.2 Approximate Dimetric Drawings

22.3 Trimetric Projection

22.4 Trimetric Scales

22.5 Trimetric Ellipses

22.6 Axonometric Projection Using Intersections

22.7 Computer Graphics

22.8 Oblique Projections

22.9 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings

22.10 Offset Measurements

22.11 Oblique Dimensioning

22.12 Computer Graphics

CHAPTER Twenty-Three Perspective Drawings

Understanding Perspectives

23.1 Perspective from a Multiview Projection

23.2 Nonrotated Side View Method for Perspective

23.3 Drawing an Angular Perspective

23.4 Position of the Station Point

23.5 Location of the Picture Plane

23.6 Bird’s-Eye View or Worm’s-Eye View

23.7 The Three Types of Perspectives

23.8 One-Point Perspective

23.9 One-Point Perspective of a Cylindrical Shape

23.10 Two-Point Perspective

23.11 Three-Point Perspective

23.12 Measurements in Perspective

23.13 Direct Measurements along Inclined Lines

23.14 Vanishing Points of Inclined Lines

23.15 Inclined Lines in Perspective, Joining Endpoint Method

23.16 Curves and Circles in Perspective

23.17 The Perspective Plan Method

23.18 Perspective Diagram

23.19 Shading

23.20 Computer Graphics


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