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SQL Fundamentals, 2nd Edition

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SQL Fundamentals, 2nd Edition

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  • Copyright 2002
  • Edition: 2nd
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  • ISBN-10: 0-13-066947-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-066947-6

A new edition of this title is now available, ISBN-10: 0137126026 ISBN-13: 9780137126026

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

SQL Fundamentals: Getting Information From a Table

Table of Contents



1. Storing Information in Tables.

Introduction. The Parts of a Table. Examples of Tables. Summary.

2. Getting Information from a Table.

The Select Statement. The Select Clause. The Where Clause. The Order By Clause. Summary. Exercises.

3. Compound Conditions in the Where Clause.

Compound Conditions in the Where Clause. Constant Values. Punctuation Matters. Some Exercises Solved for You. Summary. Exercises.

4. Saving Your Results.

Saving Your Results in a New Table or View. Modifying the Data in a Table. Summary. Exercises.

5. Modifying Data Through a View.

Transactions. Modifying Data Through a View. Oracle SQLplus. Finding Information About Tables and Views. Summary. Exercises.

6. Creating Your Own Tables.

Creating Tables. Changing Tables. Tables with Duplicate Rows. Loading a Large Amount of Data from a Flat File. Summary. Exercises.

7. Formats, Sequences, and Indexes.

Formats. Sequences. Indexes. Finding More Information in the Data Dictionary. An Exercise Solved for You. Summary. Exercises.

8. Data Integrity.

Referential Integrity. The Delete Options and Update Options of RI. Variations of Referential Integrity. Other Types of Constraints. Summary. Exercises.

9. Row Functions.

Introduction to Row Functions. Number Functions. Text Functions. Date Functions. Summary. Exercises.

10. Using Row Functions.

Other Functions. Using the Documentation of Row Functions. Creating Patterns of Numbers and Dates. Summary. Exercises.

11. Summarizing Data.

Introduction to the Column Functions. Maximum and Minimum. Count. Sum and Average. Other Topics. Summary. Exercises.

12. Controlling the Level of Summarization.

Dividing a Table into Groups of Rows and Summarizing Each Group. Eliminating Some of the Summarized Data. Restrictions on Summarization. Summary. Exercises.

13. Inner Joins.

Introduction to Joins. Inner Joins of Two Tables. Variations of the Join Condition. Applications of Joins. Summary. Exercises.

14. Outer Joins.

Introduction to Outer Joins. Applications of Outer Joins. Summary. Exercises.

15. Union and Union All.

Unions. Unconventional Unions. Applications of a Union. Set Intersection and Set Difference in Oracle. Summary. Exercises.

16. Cross Joins and Self Joins.

Cross Joins. Self Joins. Summary. Exercises.

17. Combining Tables in a Production Database.

Methods of Joining Three or More Tables. Losing Information. Caring About the Efficiency of Your Computer. Standardizing the Way That Tables Are Joined. Summary.

18. If-Then-Else and Subqueries.

If-Then-Else Logic. Parameter Queries. Subqueries. Applications of Subqueries. Older Features of Subqueries. Summary.

19. The Multiuser Environment.

Database Configurations. Operating in a Multiuser Environment. Security and Privileges. Several People Using the Same Table at the Same Time. Locks. The Data Dictionary and the Multiuser Environment. How to Create a Shared Application. Summary.

20. The Design of SQL.

Original SQL Design Objectives. Newer Interfaces. Typical Application. Summary.

Appendix A. Obtaining and Installing Oracle.

Getting Current Information. Which Product Should You Get? Downloading Oracle from the Internet. Ordering Oracle on a CD. Installing Oracle. Setting Up to Run the Examples in This Book. Setting Up a New Userid. Installing the Tables Used in This Book. How to Build the Tables and Assign Other Tablespace Names.

Appendix B. Tips on Using Oracle.

Starting Oracle. Entering a Query. Other Ways to Edit Your SQL Code. Error Messages Are Sometimes Correct. Using the Scrollbars. If Oracle Does Not Respond. Installing the LOGIN Script. Running All the SQL for a Chapter.

Appendix C. Tips on Using Access.

You Can Use Access 2000 or 2002. Starting Access. Entering an SQL Query. Dealing with Errors. Printing.

Appendix D. Diagram of the Lunches Database.

Join Conditions. Data Validation Rules.




SQL is now one of the most important computer languages. It is used in over 100 software products, and new ones are being added all the time. This book shows you how to get the most out of your database. It explains how to use SQL to solve practical problems, using the most widely used SQL products Oracle and Microsoft Access. Oracle and Access are both widely used, easily available and run on personal computers. By learning these two products in detail, you will have all the basic skills to use any of the many products based on SQL.

Every concept in this book is illustrated with an example of SQL code. In most cases, a task is set, then the SQL code is given to complete that task. The beginning and result tables of data are also shown. There are more than 200 of these examples. Each part stands on its own. You can read this book sequentially or skip around to find the parts that you need.

Be sure to look at the appendices for practical tips on how to run Oracle and Access. The CD-ROM contains the database files and the code for all the examples.

In several places throughout this book, I have expressed opinions about computer technology, something that many other technical books avoid doing. These opinions are my own and I take full responsibility for them. I also reserve the right to change my mind. If I do so, I will put my revised opinion and the reasons that have caused me to change my thinking on the Web site for this book,



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