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Solaris 10 System Administration Exam Prep: CX-310-200, Part I, 2nd Edition

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Solaris 10 System Administration Exam Prep: CX-310-200, Part I, 2nd Edition

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Description

  • Copyright 2009
  • Dimensions: 7 X 9-1/8
  • Pages: 768
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-3790-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3790-8
  • eBook (Adobe DRM)
  • ISBN-10: 0-7686-8632-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7686-8632-6

In This Book You’ll Learn How To:

  • Install and configure the Solaris 10 operating environment on SPARC and x86/x64-based platforms
  • Set up, manage, back up, and recover file systems
  • Execute System Boot and Shutdown Procedures for SPARC and x86/x64-based systems
  • Manage services using the Service Management Facility (SMF)
  • Perform User and Security Administration
  • Set up and manage printers and system processes
  • Perform system backup and recovery operations

“Bill’s original Cert Prep guides were used throughout Sun’s service organization as the SEs studied for Certification. This was not mandated by Sun management but happened through word-of-mouth by those software engineers who had successfully passed the exam. In this new edition, Bill adds a chapter to explain the boot process (from POST to service initialization through SMF) on both SPARC and x86 systems. All chapters have been updated to reflect the Solaris 05/08 updates including detailed coverage of the x86 platform. This new guide is still the best source I know of to study for the exam.  —Brian Howard, Systems Engineer / Solaris Ambassador

WRITTEN BY A LEADING SOLARIS EXPERT!

Bill Calkins is owner and president of Pyramid Consulting, a computer training and consulting firm specializing in the implementation and administration of open systems. He works as a consultant with Sun Microsystems and has contributed extensively to the Solaris certification program and simulation technology. He also owns www.unixed.com, a website that provides online UNIX training materials. Bill has more than 20 years of experience in UNIX system administration, consulting, and training at more than 250 different companies and government agencies and has authored several books on Solaris.

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ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3790-8

ISBN-10: 0-7897-3790-6

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Solaris 10 System Administration Exam Prep: Managing System Processes

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Table of Contents

Introduction................................................................................................................ 1

    How This Book Helps You............................................................................... 2

    Conventions Used in This Book....................................................................... 4

    Audience....................................................................................................... 5

    The Sun Certified System Administrator Exams................................................ 5

    Exam CX-310-200.......................................................................................... 6

        Manage File Systems......................................................................... 6

        Install Software.................................................................................. 6

        Perform System Boot Procedures........................................................ 6

        Perform User and Security Administration............................................ 7

        Manage Network Printers and System Processes................................. 7

        Perform System Backups and Restores............................................... 7

    Exam CX-310-203 (Solaris 10 Upgrade Exam).................................................. 7

    Summary...................................................................................................... 8

    Advice on Taking the Exam............................................................................. 8

Study and Exam Prep Tips........................................................................................ 11

    Learning as a Process.................................................................................. 11

    Study Tips................................................................................................... 12

        Study Strategies.............................................................................. 12

        Pretesting Yourself........................................................................... 13

    Exam Prep Tips........................................................................................... 13

        Putting It All Together....................................................................... 15

Part I: Exam Preparation

chapter one
Managing File Systems............................................................................................ 21

    Introduction.................................................................................................. 26

    Device Drivers.............................................................................................. 26

    Physical Device Name.................................................................................. 27

    Device Autoconfiguration............................................................................... 33

    USB Devices................................................................................................ 35

    Instance Names........................................................................................... 37

    Major and Minor Device Numbers................................................................... 40

    Logical Device Name.................................................................................... 42

        Block and Raw Devices..................................................................... 46

    A File System Defined.................................................................................. 48

    Defining a Disk’s Geometry........................................................................... 48

        Disk Controllers................................................................................ 49

        Defect List....................................................................................... 49

        Disk Labels...................................................................................... 50

        Partition Tables................................................................................ 51

    Solaris File System Types............................................................................ 52

        Disk-Based File Systems.................................................................. 52

        Network-Based File Systems............................................................ 52

        Virtual File Systems......................................................................... 53

    Disk Slices.................................................................................................. 54

        Displaying Disk Configuration Information............................................ 56

        Using the format Utility to Create Slices............................................... 58

        The Free Hog Slice........................................................................... 66

        Using the format Utility to Modify Partitions.......................................... 66

        Using the Solaris Management Console Disks Tool............................. 69

        Recovering Disk Partition Information.................................................. 74

        Logical Volumes............................................................................... 75

    Parts of a UFS ............................................................................................ 75

    The Root (/) File System............................................................................... 78

        Soft (Symbolic) Links........................................................................ 83

        Hard Links....................................................................................... 85

        Removing a Link............................................................................... 87

    Components of the UFS ............................................................................... 87

        The Boot Block................................................................................ 88

        The Superblock................................................................................ 88

        Cylinder Groups............................................................................... 89

        The inode......................................................................................... 89

        The Storage Block............................................................................ 90

        Free Blocks..................................................................................... 90

    Creating a UFS ........................................................................................... 90

    Understanding Custom File System Parameters............................................. 92

        Logical Block Size............................................................................ 93

        Fragment Size................................................................................. 93

        Minimum Free Space........................................................................ 94

        Optimization Type............................................................................ 95

        Number of inodes and Bytes per inode............................................... 95

        The mkfs Command........................................................................... 95

        The fstyp Command.......................................................................... 98

    File System Operations................................................................................ 99

        Synchronizing a File System............................................................. 99

        Repairing File Systems................................................................... 100

        The labelit Command........................................................................ 104

        The volcopy Command..................................................................... 105

    Tuning File Systems................................................................................... 106

    Mounting File Systems............................................................................... 108

        Mounting a File System with Large Files........................................... 113

        Mounting a File System with UFS Logging Enabled........................... 114

    Unmounting a File System.......................................................................... 114

        The fuser Command........................................................................ 115

        /etc/mnttab.......................................................................................... 116

    Volume Management.................................................................................. 120

        Using Volume Management............................................................. 128

        Troubleshooting Volume Manager..................................................... 129

        Displaying a File System’s Disk Space Usage.................................. 131

        Displaying Directory Size Information................................................ 135

    Information on File Systems........................................................................ 136

        Controlling User Disk Space Usage.................................................. 138

        The quot Command.......................................................................... 139

    Summary................................................................................................... 141

        Key Terms..................................................................................... 141

        Exercises...................................................................................... 142

        Exam Questions............................................................................. 147

        Answers to Review Questions.......................................................... 163

    Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 170

chapter two
Installing the Solaris 10 Operating Environment......................................................... 171

    Introduction................................................................................................ 174

    Installing the Solaris 10 Software.................................................................. 174

    Requirements and Preparation for Installing the Solaris 10 Software................ 175

        Minimum System Requirements...................................................... 176

    Software Terminology.................................................................................. 177

        Software Packages......................................................................... 177

        Software Groups............................................................................. 177

        Solaris Media................................................................................. 179

        System Configuration to Be Installed................................................ 179

    Disk Storage.............................................................................................. 181

        Basic Considerations for Planning Partition (Slice) Sizes.................... 183

        Slice Arrangements on Multiple Disks.............................................. 184

    Methods of Installing the Solaris 10 Software................................................. 185

        Solaris Interactive Installation: Using the GUI..................................... 186

        Solaris Interactive Installation: Using the CLI..................................... 186

        JumpStart...................................................................................... 187

        Custom JumpStart.......................................................................... 187

        Solaris Live Upgrade....................................................................... 188

        Solaris Flash Archives..................................................................... 189

        WAN Boot..................................................................................... 190

    Upgrading the Operating System.................................................................. 190

    The Solaris Installation Prechecklist............................................................. 191

        Secure by Default........................................................................... 194

        Using the Interactive Installation Process (install-solaris) on a SPARC-Based System 195

        Configuring Power Management....................................................... 224

    Tools for Managing Software........................................................................ 225

    Adding and Removing Software Packages..................................................... 226

    Using a Spool Directory............................................................................... 227

        Installing Software from the Command Line....................................... 229

        Removing Software Using pkgrm........................................................ 229

        Solaris Product Registry.................................................................. 230

        Web Start Installer.......................................................................... 233

    Listing and Verifying Installed Packages....................................................... 235

    Software Patches....................................................................................... 237

    Obtaining a Patch....................................................................................... 238

        Installing a Patch............................................................................ 240

        Removing a Patch........................................................................... 243

    Patch Manager (smpatch).............................................................................. 244

    Patch Tool................................................................................................. 249

    General Guidelines..................................................................................... 251

    Summary................................................................................................... 253

        Key Terms..................................................................................... 253

        Exercises...................................................................................... 254

        Exam Questions............................................................................. 258

        Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 264

        Suggested Readings and Resources................................................ 266

chapter three
Performing System Boot and Shutdown Procedures for SPARC, x64-, and x86-Based Systems       267

    Introduction................................................................................................ 272

    Booting a SPARC System........................................................................... 272

        Powering on the System................................................................. 273

        The Boot PROM and Program Phases.............................................. 273

    The OpenBoot Environment......................................................................... 274

        Entry-Level to High-End Systems..................................................... 276

        Accessing the OpenBoot Environment.............................................. 276

        System Console............................................................................. 277

        System Control Switch.................................................................... 277

        OpenBoot Firmware Tasks.............................................................. 278

    The OpenBoot Architecture.......................................................................... 279

    The OpenBoot Interface............................................................................... 281

    Getting Help in OpenBoot............................................................................ 281

    PROM Device Tree (Full Device Pathnames)................................................. 283

        OpenBoot Device Aliases................................................................ 287

    OpenBoot NVRAM...................................................................................... 289

        The nvedit Line Editor....................................................................... 296

    OpenBoot Security..................................................................................... 298

    OpenBoot Diagnostics................................................................................ 300

        Input and Output Control.................................................................. 305

    OpenBoot PROM Versions.......................................................................... 307

    Booting a SPARC System........................................................................... 307

        The boot Command.......................................................................... 309

        The BIOS....................................................................................... 319

        GRUB............................................................................................ 320

        Configuring the Video Display on the x86/x64 Platform....................... 329

    The Kernel................................................................................................. 331

    The init Phase............................................................................................. 335

        The Service Management Facility (SMF)........................................... 337

        Using the Run Control Scripts to Stop or Start Services..................... 366

    System Shutdown...................................................................................... 370

        Commands to Shut Down the System.............................................. 371

        Stopping the System for Recovery Purposes: SPARC........................ 375

        Stopping the System for Recovery Purposes: x86/x64....................... 377

        Turning Off the Power to the Hardware.............................................. 377

    Summary................................................................................................... 378

        Key Terms..................................................................................... 378

        Exercises...................................................................................... 380

        Exam Questions............................................................................. 384

        Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 392

    Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 397

CHAPTER four
User and Security Administration............................................................................. 399

    Introduction................................................................................................ 402

    Administering User Accounts....................................................................... 402

        Managing User and Group Accounts with the SMC............................ 402

        Managing User and Group Accounts from the Command Line............. 417

    Setting Up Shell Initialization Files............................................................... 425

        C Shell Initialization Files................................................................ 425

        Bourne Shell Initialization Files........................................................ 426

        Korn Shell Initialization Files............................................................ 426

        Additional Shells Included with Solaris 10......................................... 426

        Default Initialization Files................................................................. 427

        Customizing User Initialization Files................................................. 428

        The Home Directory........................................................................ 431

        Projects......................................................................................... 432

        Name Services............................................................................... 432

    System Security......................................................................................... 433

        Controlling Physical Security........................................................... 434

        Controlling System Access............................................................. 434

        Controlling File Access................................................................... 443

    Access Control Lists (ACLs)........................................................................ 447

        Setting ACL Entries........................................................................ 448

        Checking the New File Permissions................................................. 450

        Verifying ACL Entries...................................................................... 450

        Copying a File’s ACL to Another File................................................ 450

        Modifying ACL Entries on a File....................................................... 451

        Deleting ACL Entries from a File...................................................... 451

        Auditing Users................................................................................ 454

        Controlling Network Security............................................................ 459

        Securing Superuser Access............................................................ 466

    The Secure Shell (ssh)................................................................................. 468

    ASET 471

    Common-Sense Security Techniques........................................................... 473

    Summary................................................................................................... 474

        Key Terms..................................................................................... 457

        Exercises...................................................................................... 475

        Exam Questions............................................................................. 480

        Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 489

    Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 492

CHAPTER five
Managing System Processes.................................................................................. 493

    Introduction................................................................................................ 496

    Viewing a Process...................................................................................... 496

        pgrep................................................................................................ 500

        prstat................................................................................................ 502

        mpstat............................................................................................... 506

        ptree................................................................................................. 507

        time.................................................................................................. 507

        Process Manager........................................................................... 508

        SMC Process Tool.......................................................................... 511

        pargs................................................................................................ 512

        svcs................................................................................................. 514

    Process Types........................................................................................... 515

    Using Signals............................................................................................. 517

    Scheduling Processes................................................................................ 521

    Scheduling Priorities................................................................................... 522

        Changing the Priority of a Time-Sharing Process with nice................... 522

        Changing the Scheduling Priority of Processes with priocntl................. 524

        Fair Share Scheduler (FSS) and the Fixed Scheduler (FX).................. 525

    Using the Solaris Batch-Processing Facility.................................................. 525

        Configuring crontab........................................................................... 525

        Scheduling a Single System Event (at).............................................. 528

        Job Scheduler................................................................................ 531

    Summary................................................................................................... 533

        Key Terms..................................................................................... 533

        Exercises...................................................................................... 534

        Exam Questions............................................................................. 535

        Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 539

    Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 540

Chapter six
Managing the LP Print Service................................................................................. 541

    The Solaris OS Print Service (LP)................................................................. 544

    The Solaris Print Service............................................................................. 544

        LP Print Service Directories............................................................. 546

        The Print Spooler............................................................................ 547

        The LP Print Daemons.................................................................... 548

    Setting Up the Printer Hardware................................................................... 550

        Ethernet Connections...................................................................... 550

        Parallel Connections....................................................................... 550

        Serial Connections.......................................................................... 550

        USB Connections........................................................................... 551

    Setting Up a Network Printer ....................................................................... 551

        BSD Versus SVR4 Printing Software................................................ 551

        Print Servers Versus Print Clients.................................................... 553

        Configuring Software for a Solaris Printer........................................... 554

    Administering Printers................................................................................. 560

        Deleting Printers and Managing Printer Access................................. 560

        Creating Printer Classes.................................................................. 562

        Checking Printer Status.................................................................. 564

        Managing Printer Queues................................................................ 565

        Restarting the Print Scheduler......................................................... 571

        Setting a User’s Default Printer........................................................ 572

        Modifying the Printer with Print Manager........................................... 572

        Troubleshooting the Print Scheduler................................................. 574

    Summary................................................................................................... 574

        Key Terms..................................................................................... 575

        Exercises...................................................................................... 576

        Exam Questions............................................................................. 582

        Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 586

    Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 587

chapter Seven
Performing System Backups and Restorations.......................................................... 589

    Introduction................................................................................................ 592

    Backup Media............................................................................................ 592

        Tape Device Names........................................................................ 593

    Solaris Backup and Restoration Utilities....................................................... 595

        The tar Utility.................................................................................. 595

        The dd Utility.................................................................................. 597

        The cpio Utility................................................................................ 599

        The pax Utility................................................................................. 603

        The ufsdump Utility........................................................................... 606

        The ufsrestore Utility......................................................................... 612

        Recovering the Root (/) or /usr File System........................................ 618

        Additional Notes About Restoring Files............................................. 622

    Tape Drive Control....................................................................................... 623

    The UFS Snapshot Utility.............................................................................. 624

    zip and unzip.............................................................................................. 629

    Solaris Flash Archive.................................................................................. 629

    The jar Utility.............................................................................................. 631

    Summary................................................................................................... 633

        Key Terms..................................................................................... 634

        Exercises...................................................................................... 635

        Exam Questions............................................................................. 637

        Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 640

    Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 641

Part II: Final Review

Fast Facts............................................................................................................. 645

    Managing File Systems............................................................................... 645

        Devices and Drivers......................................................................... 646

        Instance Names............................................................................. 647

        File Systems.................................................................................. 647

        Creating a UFS............................................................................... 650

        Volume Management...................................................................... 651

    Installing the Solaris 10 Operating Environment............................................. 651

        Tools for Managing Software............................................................ 653

        Software Patches........................................................................... 654

    System Startup and Shutdown..................................................................... 655

        OpenBoot Environment (SPARC Systems Only)................................ 656

        The Kernel..................................................................................... 659

        Commands to Shut Down the System.............................................. 661

    User and Security Administration................................................................. 661

        Shells and Initialization Files............................................................ 662

        System Security............................................................................. 665

        Protecting Data.............................................................................. 666

        Access Control Lists (ACLs)............................................................ 667

        Monitoring Users............................................................................ 668

        Network Security............................................................................ 668

        Restricting Root Access.................................................................. 669

    Managing Processes.................................................................................. 669

        Using the kill Command.................................................................... 670

        Using the Solaris Batch-Processing Facility...................................... 671

    Managing the LP Print Service..................................................................... 672

        The LP Print Daemons.................................................................... 674

    Performing System Backups and Restorations.............................................. 675

Practice Exam ...................................................................................................... 677

    Practice Exam Questions............................................................................ 677

Answers to the Practice Exam ................................................................................ 685

    Answers at a Glance to the Practice Exam................................................... 685

Part III: Appendix

Appendix
What’s on the CD-ROM .......................................................................................... 693

    ExamGear, Exam Prep Edition ................................................................... 693

Glossary           695

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