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Signaling System No. 7 (SS7/C7): Protocol, Architecture, and Services

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Signaling System No. 7 (SS7/C7): Protocol, Architecture, and Services

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  • Copyright 2005
  • Pages: 744
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-357-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-357-3

A complete, practical guide to the world's most popular signaling system, including SIGTRAN, GSM-MAP, and Intelligent Networks.

  • Provides in-depth coverage of the SS7 protocols, including implementation details
  • Covers SS7 over IP (SIGTRAN) using real-world examples
  • Covers SS7/C7 from both a North American and European perspective, providing a broad international understanding of the technology and associated standards
  • Explains mobile wireless concepts and signaling, including mobile application part (MAP)
  • Provides a thorough explanation of the Intelligent Network (IN) and associated protocols (INAP/AIN)

Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) is a signaling network and protocol that is used globally to bring telecommunications networks, both fixed-line and cellular, to life. SS7 has numerous applications and is at the very heart of telecommunications. Setting up phone calls, providing cellular roaming and messaging, and supplying converged voice and data services are only a few of the ways that SS7 is used in the communications network. SS7 also provides the point of interconnection between converging voice and data networks. This transition, which affects everyone who works with the data network, has bolstered the need for practical and applied information on SS7. In short, anyone who is interested in telecommunications should have a solid understanding of SS7.

Signaling System No. 7 (SS7/C7): Protocol, Architecture, and Services will help you understand SS7 from several perspectives. It examines the framework and architecture of SS7, as well as how it is used to provide today's telecommunications services. It also examines each level of the SS7 protocol-all the way down to the bit level of messages. In addition, the SIGTRAN standards are discussed in detail, showing the migration from SS7 to IP and explaining how SS7 information is transported over IP.

Sample Content

Table of Contents



1. The Evolution of Signaling.

The History of Signaling.


1976 to Present Day.

Subscriber Signaling.

Address Signals.

Supervisory Signals.

Tones and Announcements.


Network Signaling.

Channel Associated Signaling.

Address Signals.

Limitations of CAS.

Common Channel Signaling (CCS).

Circuit-Related Signaling.

Non-Circuit-Related Signaling.

Common Channel Signaling Modes.


2. Standards.

History of International Telephony Standards.

ITU-T (Formerly CCITT) International Standards.

Regional Standards.


3rd Generation Partnership Project.

3rd Generation Partnership Project 2.

National and Industry Standards.


T1 Committee.

Telcordia (Formerly Bellcore).






3. The Role of SS7.

Signaling System No. 7-Based Services.

Telephone-Marketing Numbers.


Single Directory Number.

Enhanced 911.

Supplementary Services.

Custom Local Area Signaling Services (CLASS).

Calling Name (CNAM).

Line Information Database (LIDB).

Local Number Portability (LNP).

2nd and 3rd Generation Cellular Networks.

Short Message Service (SMS).

Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS).

Private Virtual Networks.

Do-Not-Call Enforcement.

Signaling System No. 7: The Key to Convergence.

Internet Call Waiting and Internet Calling Name Services.

Click-to-Dial Applications.

Web-Browser-Based of Telecommunication Services .

WLAN “Hotspot” Billing.

Location-Based Games.


4. SS7 Network Architecture and Protocols Introduction.

Pre-SS7 Systems.

History of SS7.

SS7 Network Architecture.

Signaling Links and Linksets.

Routes and Routesets.

Node Types.

Link Types.

Signaling Modes.

Signaling Network Structure.

SS7 Protocol Overview.






5. The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

Network Topology.

PSTN Hierarchy.

PSTN Hierarchy in the United States.

PSTN Hierarchy in the United Kingdom.

Access and Transmission Facilities.



Network Timing.

The Central Office.

Main Distribution Frame.

The Digital Switch.

Switching Matrix.

Call Processing.

Integration of SS7 into the PSTN.

Evolving the PSTN to the Next Generation.



6. Message Transfer Part 2 (MTP2).

Signal Unit Formats.

Fill-In Signal Units.

Link Status Signal Units.

Message Signal Units.

MTP2 Overhead.

Field Descriptions.

Signal Unit Delimitation.

Length Indicator.

Signal Unit Alignment.

Error Detection.

Error Correction.

Basic Error Correction.

Preventive Cyclic Retransmission.

Signaling Link Initial Alignment.

Status Indications.

Signaling Link Error Monitoring.



Processor Outage.

Flow Control.


7. Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3).

Point Codes.

ITU-T International and National Point Codes.

ANSI National Point Codes.

Message Format.

Service Information Octet.

Signaling Information Field (SIF).

Signaling Message Handling.




Message Load Sharing.

Comparing the IP and MTP3 Protocols.

MTP3 Message Handling Example.

Signaling Network Management.

Network Management Messages (H0/H1 Codes).

Link Management.

Route Management.

Traffic Management.

MTP3/User Part Communication.

Signaling Network Management Example.


8. ISDN User Part (ISUP).

Bearers and Signaling.

ISUP and the SS7 Protocol Stack.

ISUP Standards and Variants

ISUP Message Flow.

Call Setup.

Call Release.

Unsuccessful Call Attempt.

Message Timers.

Circuit Identification Codes.

DPC to CIC Association.

Unidentified Circuit Codes.

Enbloc and Overlap Address Signaling.

Enbloc Signaling.

Overlap Signaling.

Circuit Glare (Dual-Seizure).

Resolving Glare.

Avoiding Glare.

Continuity Test.

Loopback and Transceiver Methods.

Continuity Check Procedure.

ISUP Message Format.

Basic Call Message Formats.

Detailed Call Walk-Through.

Call Setup.

Call Release.

Terminal Portability.

Circuit Suspend and Resume.

ISUP and Local Number Portability.

All Call Query (ACQ).

Query On Release (QOR).

Dropback (Also Known as Release to Pivot).

Onward Routing (OR).

ISUP-ISUP Tandem Calls.

ISUP Message Processing at a Tandem.

Continuity Testing.

Transporting Parameters.

Interworking with ISDN.

End-to-End Signaling.

ISDN Signaling Indicators in the IAM.

Supplementary Services.

Calling Line Identification (CLI) Example.

Call Forwarding Example.

Additional Call Processing Messages.

Maintenance Messages and Procedures.

Circuit Ranges.

Circuit States.

Circuit Validation (ANSI Only).

Continuity Testing.

Blocking and Unblocking Circuits.

Circuit Reset.


9. Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP).

SCCP Architecture.

SCCP Message Transfer Services.

Connection-oriented Versus Connectionless Services.

User Data and Segmentation.

Connectionless Protocol Classes.

Connection-oriented Protocol Classes.

SCCP Connectionless Control (SCLC).

SCCP Connection-Oriented Control (SCOC).

SCCP Messages and Parameters.

Message Structure.

Message Types.

SCCP Routing Control (SCRC).

Subsystem Number (SSN) Routing.

Global Title Routing.

SCCP Management (SCMG).

Replicate Subsystems.

SCMG Messages.


10. Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP).


Generic Service Interface.

Role of TCAP in Call Control.

TCAP Within the SS7 Protocol Stack.

Transaction and Component Sublayers.

Message Types.


Transaction IDs.

Establishing Transaction IDs.

Releasing Transaction IDs.

Transaction Message Sequence.


Invoke and Return Result Components.

Component IDs.

Operation Codes.


Dialogue Portion.

ITU Dialogue.

ANSI Dialogue.

Message Encoding.

Element Structure.

Element Identifier.

Length Identifier.

Message Layout.

Error Handling.

Protocol Errors.

Application Errors.

End-User Errors.

Handling Application and End-User Errors.

ITU Protocol Message Contents.

Unidirectional Message.

Begin Message.

End Message.

Continue Message.

Abort Message.

ANSI Protocol Message Contents.

Unidirectional Message.

Query With/Without Permission.

Conversation With/Without Permission.

Response Message.

Protocol Abort (P-Abort) Message.

User Abort (U-Abort) Message.

ANSI National Operations.

ANSI Parameters.



11. Intelligent Networks (IN).

The Intelligent Network.

Service Logic and Data.

Service Logic.

Service Data.

Service Distribution and Centralization.

IN Services.

IN and the SS7 Protocol.

Evolution of the Network.


Initial Services.

IN/1 Toll-Free (E800) Example.

The Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN 0.X, IN CS-X).

Basic Call State Models (BCSM).

Network Architecture.

ITU Intelligent Network Conceptual Model (INCM).

AIN 0.

IN CS-1/AIN 0.1.

IN CS-2/AIN 0.2.

AIN 0.2 Call Control Messages from the SCP.

AIN 0.2 Time Of Day (TOD) Routing Example.

Additional IN Service Examples.

Intelligent Network Application Protocol (INAP).

Basic Toll-Free Example Using INAP.

Service Creation Environment (SCE).


12. Cellular Networks.

Network Architecture.

Mobile Station (MS).

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).

Base Transceiver Station (BTS).

Base Station Controller (BSC).

Mobile Switching Centre (MSC).

Home Location Register (HLR).

Visitor Location Register (VLR).

Equipment Identity Register (EIR).

Authentication Center (AuC).

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN).

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).

Interfaces and Protocols.


Mobile Application Part (MAP).

Mobility Management and Call Processing.

Location Update.

Mobile Terminated Call (MTC).


13. GSM and ANSI-41 Mobile Application Part (MAP).

MAP Operations.

Mobility Management.

Location Management.


Authentication Management.

IMEI Management.

Subscriber Management.

Fault Recovery.

Operation and Maintenance.

Subscriber Tracing.


Call Handling.

Supplementary Services.

Unstructured Supplementary Services (USSs).


Short Message Service (SMS).







14. SS7 in the Converged World.

Next Generation Architecture.


Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).

User Adaptation (UA) Layers.

UA Common Terminology.

Routing Keys and Interface Identifiers.

MTP Level 3 UA (M3UA).

Messages and Formats.

ASPSM and ASPTM Messages.

SS7/C7 Variant Specifics.

Message Flow Example.

SCCP User Adaptation (SUA).

Messages and Formats.

Message Flow Example.

MTP Level 2 User Adaptation (M2UA).

Messages and Formats.

MTP Level 2 Peer Adaptation (M2PA).

ISDN User Adaptation (IUA).

Transport Adaptation Layer Interface (TALI).

Early Cisco SS7/IP Solution.

SS7 and SIP/H.323 Interworking.



15. SS7 Security and Monitoring.

Traffic Screening.

Screening Considerations.

MTP3: Management Messages.

Originating Point Code.

Destination Point Code.


SCCP User Messages.

Management Messages.


Traffic Monitoring.

Q.752 Monitoring Measurements.


16. SS7 Testing.

Test Equipment.

Test Specification Creation.

MTP 2 Testing.

Test Configuration.

Example 1: Initialization (Power-up), Test 1.1.

Example 2: Normal Alignment—Correct Procedure (FISU), Test 1.5.

Example 3: Individual End Sets Emergency, Test 1.22.

Example 4: SIO Received During Link In-Service, Test 1.28.

Example 5: Unexpected Signal Units/Orders in “In-Service” State, Test 2.7.

Example 6: Link Aligned Ready (Break Tx Path), Test 3.1.

Example 7: Link Aligned Ready (Corrupt FIBs—Basic), Test 3.2.

Example 8: Set and Clear LPO While Link In-Service, Test 4.1.

Example 9: SU Delimitation, Alignment, Error Detection, and Correction, Test 5.1.

Example 10: Error Rate of 1 in 256—Link Remains In-Service, Test 6.1.

Example 11, Test 7.1.

Example 12: Check RTB Full, Test 8.3.

Example 13: Forced Retransmission with the Value N1, Test 9.3.

Example 14: Congestion Abatement, Test 10.1.

MTP 3 Testing.

Test Configuration.

Example 1: First Signaling Link Activation, Test 1.1.

Example 2: Load Sharing within a Linkset (All Links Available), Test 2.4.1.

Example 3: Inaccessible Destination—Due to a Linkset Failure, Test 2.6.1.

ISUP Testing.

Test Configuration.

Example 1: CCR Received—Successful, Test 1.4.1.

Example 2: Overlap Operation (with SAM), Test 2.2.2.

Example 3: Timers T1 and T5—Failure to Receive a RLC, Test 5.2.3.

ISUP Supplementary Services Testing.

Test Configuration.

Example 1: CUG Call with Outgoing Access Allowed and Sent, Test 2.1.1.

Example 2: CLIP—Network Provided and Sent, Test 3.1.1.

Example 2: COL—Requested and Sent, Test 6.1.1.

SCCP Testing.

Test Configuration.

Example 1: Local DPC and SSN Included, DPC and SSN Available, GT and SSN Included and Sent, Test

Example 2: Remote DPC and SSN Included, DPC and/or SSN Unavailable— Return Option Not Set, Test

Example 3: Local DPC and SSN, and SSN Available GT Not Included, SSN Included, Test

TCAP Testing.

Test Configuration.

Example 1: Clearing Before Subsequent Message; Valid Clearing from Initiating Side; Prearranged Ending, Test (1).

Example 2: First Continue Message; OTID Absent, Test (1).

Example 3: Inopportune Reject Component, Test (1).



Appendix A: MTP Messages (ANSI/ETSI/ITU).

Appendix B: ISUP Messages (ANSI/UK/ETSI/ITU-T).

Appendix C: SCCP Messages (ANSI/ETSI/ITU-T).

Appendix D: TCAP Messages and Components.

Appendix E: ITU-T Q.931 Messages.

Appendix F: GSM and ANSI MAP Operations.

Appendix G: MTP Timers in ITU-T/ETSI/ANSI Applications.

Appendix H: ISUP Timers for ANSI/ETSI/ITU-T Applications.

Appendix I: GSM Mobile Country Codes (MCC) and Mobile Network Codes (MNC).

Appendix J: ITU and ANSI Protocol Comparison.

Appendix K: SS7 Standards.

Appendix L: Tektronix Supporting Traffic.

Appendix M: Cause Values.





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