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Shaping Web Usability: Interaction Design in Context

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Shaping Web Usability: Interaction Design in Context

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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8x9-1/4
  • Pages: 304
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-72993-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-72993-1

"Al Badre's book is about an everlasting truth--a truth that many people, many companies, many organizations have learned the hard way. That is, when designing technological systems for people to use, one must take into account the characteristics of the users, and the nature of the task, and the knowledge, experience, biases, strengths, and weaknesses that the users bring to the task. In the case at hand, the task is using the World Wide Web."

--James D. Foley, coauthor of Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice

All successful computer applications have one thing in common: They are designed with the user in mind. Author Al Badre has for years contributed to the ideas and methods needed to make any computer application fully usable. In Shaping Web Usability, he adapts and applies this firmly rooted knowledge and practice specifically to the Web.

Badre recognizes that Web sites comprise a unique application, where designers face a host of complex issues, including dynamic content, a broad and diverse audience, multiple entry points, intolerance of steep learning curves, and one-click abandonment. And with the arrival of handheld devices, Web designers confront additional difficult issues. Offering a structured approach to Web usability, Shaping Web Usability describes several contexts in which each site must be viewed, from the genre to which it belongs to the individual page. The book then provides a concrete methodology for designing a site effectively for the convenience, practicality, and pleasure of its users.

Inside, Web designers will find useful information on such topics as:

  • Links, buttons, site maps, and indexes for smooth site navigation
  • Keywords and site search engines
  • Effective design of home, content, and transaction pages
  • Achieving a balance between Web usability and impressive graphics
  • Retrofitting Web pages for small-screen and mobile devices
  • Addressing users' information-processing limits
  • Designing Web sites for older adults
  • Addressing the international cultural context of the Web
  • Specific guidelines to support design excellence
  • Using an iterative design process with continuous testing to
  • maximize Web usability
  • Constructing storyboards and interactive prototypes
  • Conducting task analysis to discover the sequence of events visitors use to reach their goals

Numerous real-world examples illustrate the book's concepts, techniques, and guidelines. This one book puts decades of knowledge and experience into the hands of every Web designer.



0201729938B12172001

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Table of Contents



Foreword.


Preface.


Acknowledgments.


1. Human Computer Interaction for the Web.

From Human Factors to Usability: A Short History of HCI.

Origins.

Focus on the User Interface.

User Interface Software.

Usability.

Focusing on the Web.

HCI Principles for the Web.

User-Centered Design.

Early Human Factors Input.

Task Environment Analysis.

Iterative Design and Continuous Testing.

Web Usability.

Themes.

Designing for Context.

Designing for the User Experience.



2. Web Usability Strategy.

Scenarios.

Context.

The Userview Process.

Goals and Requirements.

User Culture.

Web Interface Guidelines Specialization.

Constructing Storyboards and Interactive Prototypes.



3. The Web Environment.

The User Environment.

The Physical Space.

The Cognitive Space.

The Site Environment.

Scenarios.

Designing from Scenarios.

Simple versus Enriched Site Environments.



4. The Web User, Part 1: The Audience.

Understanding the Web User.

Defining an Audience.

Individual Differences.

Cognitive Processing Capabilities and Limits.

Generating an Audience Profile.



5. The Web User, Part 2: Older Adults.

Older Adults and the World Wide Web.

Characteristics of Older Users.

Movement Control.

Perception.

Cognition.

Web Design Features to Avoid.

Design Guidelines.

Usability Testing with Older Adults.



6. Designing for Web Genres.

Genre Content.

Genre Expression.

Genre Form.

Genre Evolution.

Genre Mixing.



7. The Web Site.

Conceptualizing the Site with a Visitor-Centered Focus.

Positioning the Content.

Speeding Up the Response.

Smoothing the Navigation.

Links.

Buttons and Controls.

Site Maps, Content Lists, and Indexes.

Landmarks and History Trails.

Keywords and Site Search Engines.

Assuring Reasonable Confidence in the Site's Privacy and Security.

Making the Site Visible.

Maintaining Quality.



8. The Web Page.

General Page Design Issues.

Consistency.

Coherence.

Placement of Information.

Information Coding.

Color.

Text Clarity.

Home, Content, and Transaction Pages.

The Home Page.

The Content Page.

The Transaction Page.



9. The Aesthetic Factor.

Usability and Aesthetics.

Simplicity and Enrichment.

The Use of Graphics.



10. From Desktops to Handhelds.

The Technology of Wireless Devices.

The Usability of Wireless Devices.

The Role of Context.

Small-Size Effects.

Effective Functionality and Task Preferences.

Information Presentation.

Interaction and Navigation.

Designer's Palette: Guidelines for Hand Web Design.



11. The Cultural Context.

Cultural Usability.

Culture-Specific Designs.

Designing for the Localized Web.

Genre-Localized Attributes.

Behaviors and Practices.

Icons, Symbols, Pictorials, and Artifacts.

Conventions and Formats.

Intangible Values and Dimensions.

Preferred Content.



12. Evaluating Web Usability.

Traditional Usability Testing.

Usability Testing for the Web.

Web-Focused Issues and Testing.

Web-Specific Test Plan Issues.

Web-Specific Evaluation Issues.

The Process of Web Evaluation.

Usability Evaluation Goal Setting.

Early Paper Testing.

Storyboard Testing.

Interactive Prototype Testing.

Frequently Asked Questions about Usability Evaluation.



Bibliography.


Index. 0201729938T01102002

Preface

I got great pleasure from writing this book. Most satisfying is knowing how readers can use the book and how it will help them in their work. I tried to put myself in the reader's place, considering possible questions and seeking the answers--not unlike the approach I recommend for the Web design process. The emphasis on users comes from my own experience. I provide arguments showing the need for a user-centered approach to Web design and present a methodology for the systematic consideration of users during design and development.

The reader will notice that I focus on design rather than implementation. Design principles and methods are long range, whereas implementation is tied to technology, which is often short-lived. This book is about designing usable Web sites--Web sites that are easy to use and that provide a pleasant, enjoyable, and successful user experience. It also examines the proposition that designing usable Web sites requires employing the Web-specialized methodology of designing for context.

In my daily life as a human interface researcher and practitioner, I am often asked by Web developers and site owners for solutions to their problems, for guidance about design, and for sound ideas to make a difference in approaching the users. End users have also come to me with questions about using Web sites and software systems. Their confusion could have been avoided if designers had employed a more careful process when developing Web sites and Web application interfaces. This book explains this careful process. It answers the questions of Web developers, provides solutions to a wide range of development problems, and offers specific guidelines to support design excellence at every step in the process.

Accordingly, this book draws heavily not only on research findings in the design and behavioral sciences but also on my own extensive experience as a Web usability consultant and practitioner. I target primarily Web developers who need to know about designing usable Web sites, but the general "Web-interested audience"--those who want to design their own Web sites--will also benefit.

This book is not written exclusively for Web designers and developers but is also geared toward reaching those who want to learn about human computer interaction as it is specialized to Web environments. Web researchers will also find the book helpful because it covers Web usability issues that must be considered for emerging technologies and environments where there are limited research and experience. These environments include mobile Web environments and wireless technologies. In general, this book is for anyone with a serious interest in making the human-Web interactive experience gratifying and productive.

The book is structured around the "Web contexts": treatments of the Web environment, the user, the Web genre, the Web site, and the Web page. A separate chapter is devoted to each. The book also does the following.

  • Delineates a user-centered approach to Web design
  • Tackles the usability issues of retrofitting Web pages for small-screen real estate as well as designing for mobile devices
  • Takes up the challenge of the encounter between Web art and Web usability
  • Discusses how to evaluate the usability of Web sites
  • Addresses the cultural context of Web design

The book presents many Web examples that illustrate concepts, techniques, and guidelines. This clarifies the close relationship between theory and practice, and thus narrows the potential gap between the researcher's interests and the practitioner's needs.

Albert N. Badre
September 2001



0201729938P01102002

Index

A

Abelson, R., 47
Abowd, G., 5, 174, 230
Absolute goal, 237
Acoustic presentation, 105, 135, 208
Aesthetic enrichment, 173-187
botanical garden site, 175-180
clutter, 176
functionality, 181-184
graphics, 186-187
misinterpretation, 184-186
simplicity, 180-186
user enjoyment, 174
visual noise, 184
Affective factors, 74-75
Age, user, 68
See also Older users
Agelidis, M., 207
Aggarwa, G., 68
Airtran.com, 167
Al Hajj Info Portal, 222-223
Allen, R. B., 79
Allison, L., 141
ALT tag, 187
Anderson, J. R., 44
Andre, A. D., 156
Andriole, S. A., 33
Animation, 135, 156, 187
Apple, 4
Application context, 197-198
Area cursor, 104
Arkin, M. D., 134
Ashcraft, M. H., 41
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 4-5
Association for Senior Citizens, 100
AT&T Broadband, 194
Atkinson, R. C., 41
Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 226
Attention, selective, 41-42, 45, 79
flashing items, 119, 156
older users, 97
Audience, 67-90
age, 68
cognitive styles, 75, 79-80
defining, 26-27
demographic/physical attributes, 75-76
education, 70-71
individual differences, 69-70
knowledge/experience, 72-73
personality, 74-75
profile, 80-83
skill levels, 71-72, 76-78
target, 67, 80, 214, 234
testing, 234
user types, 73-74, 76-77
Audio presentation, 105, 135, 208

B

Bachiochi, D., 140
Baddeley, A. D., 39, 40, 41, 43
Badre, A. N., 43, 61, 79, 91n, 123, 124, 136, 189n, 214, 215, 219
Baeker, R. M., 174
Ball, K., 97
Banker, W. P., 142
Banner, 185
Barber, R. E., 134
Barber, W., 123, 215, 219
Barnes & Noble, 127, 129
Bartlett, R. A., 214
Bartram, D. J., 135
Beale, R., 5, 174, 230
Behavioral science, 2
Bennett, J., 18, 93-94
Benyon, D., 5, 174, 230
Bharat, K., 104
Bhatti, N., 145, 146
Bias, R. G., 230
BizRate.com, 114
Bjork, S. A., 207, 208
Bleser, T. W., 5
Boies, S. J., 108
Bookmark, 166
Border resources, 10
Borello, M. S., 134
Borges, J., 123, 163
Bosman, E. A., 104
Bouch, A., 145, 146
Bourges-Waldegg, P., 215
Bower, G. H., 44
Brestene, M., 140
Brewster, S. A., 208
Brightness, 154
Broadbent, D. E., 41, 42
Broadcast news site, 115-116
Brown, J. S., 10, 110
Browser control, 139-140
Butler, T. W., 134
Button, 139-140, 148
Buxton, W., 174
Buyukkokten, O., 193, 210
Byrne, M., 207

C

Cahill, M. C., 156
Cairns, H. S., 16, 160
Calendar format, 224
Card, HTML, 192
Card, S. K., 4, 71
Card-sorting technique, 131
Carey, T., 5, 174, 230
Carrithers, C., 152
Carroll, J. M., 4, 33, 61, 72, 152
Carter, R. C., 156
Cateledge, L., 139
Character case, 160, 168
Charness, N., 104
Chase, W. G., 43
Cheng, Y., 5
Cherry, E. C., 42
Choong, Y. Y., 214
Chouinard, E., 140
Christ, R. E., 156
Clip art, 225
Closure, visual, 152
Clutter, 149-154. See also Coherence
aesthetic enrichment, 176
coding, 153-154
highlighting, 153
labels, 152-153
progressive disclosure, 152
text, 149
visual closure, 152
visual noise, 184
white space, 151-152
CNN, 116, 120, 132-133
CNNfn, 130
Coding, information, 153-156, 187
color, 156-160
location, 154
symbols, 154, 222-223
Cognitive capability, 75, 79-80
older users, 96-98
Cognitive space, 39-47
Coherence, 149-154
Cole, M., 44, 214
Collaud, G., 207
Collins, A. M., 44
Color, 156-160
cultural context, 159-160, 222, 224
graphics, 187
light levels, 157
task performance, 159
vision, 95, 157
Computers as Theater, 174
Computing technology, 2
Conlan, N., 140
Consistency, 148-149
Constructive synthesis, 201-204
Content, genre, 110-114
lists/maps, 140-141
positioning, 130-133
wireless devices, 207-209
Content page, 163-166
Context, 2, 10-11
coherence, 149
defined, 15
environmental, 17, 27-28
focus plus context, 207-208
levels of, 16-18
location, 198
of use, 233
wireless devices, 194, 197-198
See also Cultural context; Environment
Continuous testing, 8, 20
Contrast sensitivity, 95
Control, browser, 139-140
Cookies, 144
Coutaz, J., 5
Craik, F. I. M., 41, 97, 106
Crow, D., 207
Cryptic text, 210
Cultural context, 74, 213-227
behavioral markers, 221-222
color, 159-160, 222, 224
consistency, 149
context preferences, 226
conventions, 223-225
design markers, 215-217
genres, 123, 220-221
icons/symbols, 222-223
internationalization/localization, 213
script orientation, 2, 213
target audience, 214
Currency conventions, 224
Cursor, 104
Czerwinski, M., 138

D

Danchak, M., 140
Darken, R. P., 142
Data entry, 168-170
Date format, 224
Davis, A. M., 24
Day, D., 215
DeAngelo, T., 138-139, 143
Demographics, user, 75-76
See also Older users
Density, screen, 149
Design, 2
cultural elements, 220
errors, 98-103
GUI, 231-233
Hand Web, 191, 211-212
HCI, 6-8
human factors, 3-4, 7, 19
integrated, 20
iterative, 8, 19-20, 242
metaphor, 33-35
older users, 98-107
participatory, 108
scenarios, 58-61
user-centered, 7, 18-19
Web guidelines, 31-33
Web page, 148
Designing the User Interface, 5
Device diversity, 231-232
Dewey, J., 174
Dill, J., 207
Dillon, R. F., 134
Discount usability, 239-240
Distraction, 233
Dix, A., 5, 174, 230
Documentation
goals and functional requirements, 25
userview process, 20-21
Dodson, D. W., 149
Domain expression, 118, 145
Duguid, P., 10, 110

E

Echt, K. V., 105
Ecology, Web, 38
Edmunds.com, 138-139
Education sites, 118, 226
“Egocentric Intuition Fallacy,” 107
Ellis, D. E., 107
Ellis, R. D., 108
El-Shinnawy, M., 214
Encoding. See Coding, information
Enrichment, site, 61-66
See also Aesthetic enrichment
Entertainment sites, 122
content, 113
expression, 118-119
form, 120
Environment, 37-66
cognitive space, 39-47
context, 17, 27-28
cultural, 219
information processing, 41-47
older users, 106-107
physical space, 38-39
site, 47-66
testing, 234-235
user, 37-47
Eriksen, L., 120
Erno, J., 160
Evaluation. See Testing
Evers, V., 215
Evite, 182
Expedia.com, 117
Experienced user, 76-77
Expert user, 76-77
Expression, genre, 110-111, 115-119
Extensible markup language (XML), 192

F

Feedback, 169-170
Finlay, J., 5, 174, 230
Fisher, B., 207
Flanders, V., 98
Flashing item, 119
Flesch, R., 70
Flip zooming, 207-208
Focus-plus-context technique, 207-208
Foley, J. D., 4, 5
FoodRightNow, 150, 169, 183
Footer, 163
Form, genre, 110-111, 119-120
Formative testing, 108
Forsythe, C., 123
Foss, D. J., 16, 160
Frame, 143, 166
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), 166
Fry, E., 70
Functional model, 47, 50, 58
Functional requirements, 22, 23-24
Furey, T., 140

G

Galitz, W. O., 155
Gambling.com, 114
Garcia-Molina, H., 193, 210
Gehrke, D., 123
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) protocol, 192-193
Genre, 109-126
content, 110-114
cultural context, 220-221
evolution, 120-123
expression, 110-111, 115-119
form, 110-111, 119-120
mixing, 123-126
subgenres, 110
Genre context, 17
Geometric-shape coding, 154
GIF, 187
Gilbreth, Frank, 3
Gobbin, R., 215
Godden, D. R., 39, 40
GOMS model, 4
Gonzalez, C., 180
Gould, E. W., 215, 225
Gould, J. D., 4, 5, 18, 108, 160
Graphic Visualization and Usability Center (GVU) surveys, 143
audience, 68
cultural context, 214, 215
response time, 134
skill levels, 77
task analysis, 195
Graphics, 186-187
response time, 134
Greenberg, S., 139, 174, 197
Greenspoon, J., 40
Grishkowsky, N., 160
Grose, E., 123
Grudin, J., 174
GUI software, 4
and Web design, 8-10, 231-233

H

Haber, R. N., 186
Haine, D., 138
Hamilton, A., 134
Hammond, N., 141
Hand Web. See Wireless device
Hayes, B. C., 75
HCI. See Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
Header, 163, 185-186
Hearing, 96, 104-105
Heath, J., 138
Heinz, S. P., 42
Heller, H., 131
Herstad, J., 193
Hierarchical task decomposition, 30
Highlighting, 153, 187
History, 141-143
Hitch, G., 41
Hofstede, G., 214, 215, 220, 225
Holland, S., 5, 174, 230
Holmquist, L. E., 207
Holtzblatt, K., 18
Home page, 161-163, 235
HP Jornada, 191, 194-197
HTML, 192
Hudson, S., 104
Human Computer Interaction (HCI), 1-11
history, 3-6
methodologies, 2
Web design, 6-8
Human factors design, 3-4, 7, 19
Hurley, W. D., 5
Hurst, M., 123
Hyperlink. See Link

I

IBM ThinkPad 600E, 194-197
Icon, 141-142, 154
aesthetic enrichment, 175-178
cultural context, 222-223
as link, 187
sticky, 104
Ihlstrom, C., 120
Illiteracy, 71
Image map, 187
Index, 61-66, 107, 140-141
Information coding, 153-160, 187, 222-223
Information processing, 41-47
long-term memory, 42-47, 79-80
salient/insalient, 45-47
selective attention, 41-42, 45, 79, 97, 119
short-term memory, 42-43, 47, 79
working memory, 42-43, 45, 151-152
Information sites, 121
content, 112
expression, 115-118
form, 120
Infrastructure context, 197
Insalient storage, 45-47
Integrated design, 20
Interaction Design Institute Ivrea, 162-163, 183
Interaction usability, 2
Interactive prototype testing, 239-240, 242
Interface, 4-5
Web guidelines, 31-33
International Osteoporosis Foundation, 101
Internationalization, 213
Internet. See World Wide Web
Iterative design, 8, 19-20, 242

J

Jacko, J. A., 134
Jacobs, A., 61
Janal, D., 165
Jankowski, T. B., 108
Jasper, J. E., 108
Jennings, J. M., 106
John, B., 207
Johnson, Chris, 193
Johnson, Peter, 193
Johnston, W. A., 42
Jones, C., 207
Jones, D. M., 141
Jornada, HP, 191, 194-197
JPEG, 187
Justice Store, 102

K

Kamerman, J., 16, 160
Kantner, L., 233
Kashimora, K., 174
Kehoe, C. M., 68, 77, 208
Kellogg, W. A., 33, 72
Keyword, 143-144
Kim, W. C., 5
Kline, D. W., 105, 106
Kovacevic, S., 5
Kristoffersen, S., 193
Kubeck, J. E., 94
Kuchinski, A., 145, 146
Kurniawan, S. H., 107
Kurosu, M., 174

L

Labeling, 152-153
Lamb, C. W., 72
Lamson, N., 98, 100
Landauer, T. K., 107, 108, 230
Landmark, 135, 141-143
Larson, K., 138
Laskowski, S., 123, 124
Laurel, B., 174
Le Promenades d’Euclide, 199-200
Learning style, 6, 72-73
Leeds University Union Bridge Club, 113
Levels of interaction model, 4
Lewis, C. H., 5
Lickert scale, 246
Licklider, J. C. R., 3-4
Line length, 120, 154, 160
Link, 138-139
content page, 165-166
home page, 162
icon as, 187
name, 106
visibility, 181
wireless devices, 210
Lisa, 4
List, 135-136, 140-141
Localization, 213
Location context, 198
Location encoding, 154
Lockhart, R. S., 41
Loftus, E. F., 44
Long-term memory (LTM), 42-47, 79-80
Lucas, H. C., 134

M

McCarthy, J. C., 6
McClard, A., 194
McDonald, S., 140
Macintosh, 4
Mack, R. L., 33, 72
Mackay, J. M., 72
Mackinlay, J. D., 207
McKnight, C., 232
Magazine sites, 220-221
Magritte, Rene, 199
Mailbox icon, 222
Manning, H., 6
Map, site, 135-136, 140-141, 187
Mapquest, 150
Maquet, J., 174
Marcus, A., 215, 225
Marwood, D., 197
Mayhew, D. J., 5, 230
Mayhorn, C. B., 93-94
Mead, S. E., 94, 98, 100, 104, 107
Meads, J., 174
Measurement, test, 240-244
MediaOne, 194
Medical sites, 118-119
Megaw, E. D., 155
Memory, 41-47
long-term, 42-47, 79-80
older users, 97-98, 106-107
selective attention, 41-42, 45, 79
short-term, 42-43, 47, 79
working, 42-43, 45, 151-152
Mental model
consistency, 235
information organization, 131
navigation, 135
structural/functional, 47, 50
Web pages, 232
wireless devices, 196-197
Menu name, 106
Metacrawler.com, 143-144
Metaphor design, 33-35
Meyer, E., 94, 104, 107
Michigan Aging Services System, 108
Microsoft sites, 218-219
Miller, G. A., 42
Miller-Albrecht, S. A., 94
Millians, J., 95, 104
Mixing genres, 123-126
Mobile phone, 189-191, 206-208
See also Wireless device
Mobshop, 184
Model
content organization, 131
cultural, 215
mental, 47, 50, 131, 196-197, 232, 235
navigation, 135
structural/functional, 47, 50, 58
Web sites, 33-35
Molich, R., 239
Morales, I., 123, 163
Moran, T. P., 4, 71
Morrell, R. W., 93-94
Moskel, S., 160
Mouse movement, 104
Movement control, 94, 104
Mullet, K., 173
Multimedia, 135
Murphy, M. D., 94
Murray, K., 5
Museum sites, 61-66, 220

N

Nakakoji, K., 221, 225
National Institutes of Health, 102
Navigation, 135-144, 232
buttons/controls, 139-140
history/landmarks, 141-143
links, 138-139
lists/maps, 135-136, 140-141, 187
searching, 137-138, 143-144
spatial, 61-66
strategies, 135-136
task statements, 136-137
testing, 239-240
NCFCU, 181
Neligon, C., 140
NeoPoint NP-1000, 194-196
Netcraft, 98
Netscape, 139-140
Newell, A., 4, 71
News sites, 121
consistency, 148
content, 111-112
cultural context, 220
evolution, 122
expression, 115-116
form, 119-120
line length, 120
shopping format, 124-126
Newspapers, Web, 8
Nielsen, J., 5, 6, 61, 106, 123, 131, 137, 152, 161, 174, 185, 230-234, 239, 244
Nonfunctional requirements, 22, 24-25
Norman, D. A., 5, 18, 41, 42, 174
Novice user, 76-77
NUA Internet survey, 68
Numeric conventions, 223-224

O

Object, physical, 38-39
Older users, 91-108
cognition, 96-98
color vision, 157
design errors, 98-103
design guidelines, 103-107
movement control, 95, 104
perception, 95-96
skill levels, 94
testing, 107-108
Web usage, 93-94
Olson, J. R., 4, 33, 61
Organization, page, 164
See also Clutter
Owsley, C., 97

P

Paepcke, A., 193, 210
Page context, 17
See also Web page
Palm Pilot VII, 194-196
Parallel error, 142
Park, D. C., 97
Partial content effect, 204-206
Payne, S. J., 141
Perception, 95-96
Performance, test, 240-243
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), 189-191
See also Wireless device
Personalization, site, 128-130, 144, 233, 235
Pertinence, 42
Phone, mobile, 189-191, 206-208
See also Wireless device
Physical capability, 76
Physical context, 198
Physical space, 38-39
Pichora-Fuller, M. K., 95
Pitkow, J. E., 68, 77, 139, 208
Plug-in, 135
Point of entry, 232-233
Preece, J., 5, 174, 230
Privacy, 144
Problem solving, 72
Progressive disclosure, 152
Progressive rendering, 135
Prompting, 170-171
Prototype testing, 239-240, 242
Psychology of Everyday Things, The, 5

Q

Questionnaire, 83-90, 245-248
Quillian, M. R., 44

R

Ratner, J., 123
Raynard, R., 40
Reading comprehension, 160
Reading level, 70-71
Redstrom, J., 208
Rehman, A., 231
Reisner, P., 4
Reitman, J. S., 43
Reitman, W. R., 42, 136
Relative goal, 237
Requirements, 21-25
definition/specification, 21-22
functional/nonfunctional, 22, 23-25
Response time, 134-135, 187, 235
Richardson, J., 155
Rips, L. J., 44
Rivers, D., 131
Robertson, G. G., 207
Rodriguez, N., 123, 163
Rogers, J., 68, 77
Rogers, W. A., 91n, 97, 98, 100
Rogers, Y., 5, 174, 230
Rosenbaum, S., 233
Route, 135-136
Ruddle, R. P., 141

S

Salient storage, 45-47
Salthouse, T. A., 97
Salvendy, G., 214
Sano, D., 131, 173
Scanlon, T., 138-139, 143
Scenario, 14, 21, 51-61, 234
Schaeffer, B., 44
Schank, R. C., 47
Schema, 47
Schneider, B. A., 95
Schneider, M. L., 202
Schneider, W., 41
Scholtz, J., 215
Schroeder, W., 138-139, 143, 244
Schwartz, N., 97
Scialfa, C. T., 105, 106
Screen context, 198-201
Screen density, 149
Script, 47, 50-59
Script orientation, 213
Scrivener, S. A. R., 215
Scrolling, 161
Search, index, 61-66
Search, Internet, 137-138
Search engine, site, 143-144, 162
Sears, A., 134
Security, 144-145
Selective attention, 41-42, 45, 79
flashing items, 119, 156
older users, 97
SeniorNet, 93
Sensory activation, 42
Sharp, H., 5, 174, 230
Sheppard, C., 215
Shields, N. J., 149
Shiffrin, R. N., 41
Shneiderman, B., 4, 5, 106, 160, 174, 230
Shoben, E. J., 44
Shopping sites, 121
content, 113
cultural context, 221
expression, 115, 117
form, 120
news format, 124-126
Short-term memory (STM), 42-43, 47, 79
Shum, S., 232
Siebert, J. L., 5
Simon, H. A., 43
Simplicity, 61, 180-186
Sit, R. A., 94, 104, 107
Site context, 17
Site environment, 47-66
enrichment, 61-66
mental models, 47, 50
scenarios, 51-61
schema/script, 47, 50-59
See also Web site
Site map, 135-136, 140-141, 187
Skill level, 71-72, 76-78
Smith, E. E., 44
Smither, J. A., 96
Snyder, C., 138-139, 143
Somers, P., 194
Sound presentation, 105, 135, 208
Souza, R. K., 6
Spatial navigation, 61-66
Spaulding, V. A., 94, 104, 107
Spool, J., 138-139, 143, 244
Sports, 226
Squire, L. R., 41, 44
Starting-point strategy, 155
Sternberg, R. J., 41
Stevenson, R. J., 140
Sticky icon, 104
Storyboard, 33, 238-239, 242
Streveler, D. J., 155
Structural model, 47, 50, 58
Subgenre, 110
Subheading, 165
Subsite, 132
Subway representation, 47-49
Sukel, Kayt, 189n
Summative testing, 108
Supermarket model, 50-61
Survey knowledge, 135
Survey questionnaire, 83-90, 245-248
Sutton, K., 68
Switching cost, 232
Symbiosis, 3-4
Symbol encoding, 154, 222-223
System response time, 134-135

T

Table of contents, 107, 140-141
Tabular data, 167-168
Tahir, M., 123
Tan, P., 207
Target audience, 67, 80, 214, 234
Task analysis, 7, 28-31
audience definition, 73
color coding, 159
content, 130-131, 164
frequency hierarchy, 210
navigational, 136-137
task identification, 29-30
task representation, 30-31
task structuring, 30
testing, 234
types of, 28
Tauscher, C., 139
Tax Interactive, 184-185
Taylor, W. K., 42
Temporal resolution, 95-96, 106
Testing, 8, 20, 229-248
costs, 230
discount usability, 239-240
enjoyment, 229
evaluation issues, 235-236
expert reviews, 239-240
FAQs, 240-248
formative/summative, 108
goals, 237, 240
GUI design, 231-233
laboratory, 239-240
measurement, 240-244
older users, 107-108
paper-testing, 237-238
participant selection, 244
performance, 240-243
planning, 233-236
prototype, 239-240, 242
questionnaires, 245-248
stages of, 236
storyboard, 33, 238-239, 242
target audience, 234
Text presentation, 105
character case, 160, 168
clarity, 160-161
clutter, 149
cryptic, 210
genres, 115
home page, 163
line length, 120, 154, 160
link labels, 138-139
page titles, 142
placement, 155, 176-177
wireless devices, 207-209
Thacker, P., 149
Thanh, D. V., 193
ThinkPad 600E, 194-196
Thomas, J., 4
Thompson, D. M., 44
Throndyke, P. W., 135
Thumbnails, 207-208
Thurstone scale, 246
Time format, 224
Title, page, 142, 166
Tobmaugh, J., 134
Tolerance level, 74
Training wheels method, 152
Transaction page, 166-171, 187
Transaction-oriented task analysis, 28-30
Trash can, 221
Tratinsky, N., 174
Treisman, A., 42, 149
Trinity Mirror Digital Media, 227
Tullis, T. S., 180
Tulving, E., 44
Tun, P. A., 105
Turban, E., 123
Typing skills, 71

U

Ukelson, J., 108
Universite de Savoie, 201-204
University of Michigan, 112, 151, 162
Updating, 166
U.S. Department of Commerce, 93
USA Today, 111, 116, 120
Usability, 5-6
Useful field of view (UFOV), 97, 106
User
characteristics, 2
context, 17, 149
culture, 26-31
interface, 4-5
types of, 73-74, 76-77
user-centered design, 7, 18-19
See also Audience
User environment, 37-47
goals/intentions, 40-41
long-term memory, 42-47
physical objects, 38-39
selective attention, 41-42, 45
short-term memory, 42-43, 47
thoughts, 40
working memory, 42-43, 45
User experience, 2, 11
audience definition, 27
learning styles, 72-73
testing, 235
Userview process, 13, 18-35
audience definition, 26-27
design guidelines, 31-33
documentation, 20-21, 25
environmental context, 27-28
goals, 22-23
modeling, 33-35
principles, 18-21
requirements, 21-25
task analysis, 28-31

V

Van Dam, A., 4
Vanderbilt University, 118
Vercruyssen, M., 95
Vincente, K. J., 75
Vinson, N., 141
Vinze, A. S., 214
Visual acuity, 96
Visual closure, 152
Visual noise, 184
Visual search, 97, 106
Vora, P., 123

W

Walker, N., 94, 95, 104, 107
Wallace, R., 44
Wallace, V. L., 4
Wasserman, A. I., 155
Waugh, N. C., 41
Way, D., 140
Web. See World Wide Web
Web clipping, 208-209
Web ecology, 38
Web page, 147-171
coherence, 149-154
color, 156-160
consistency, 148-149
content page, 163-166
design principles, 148
home page, 161-163, 235
information coding, 155-156
information placement, 155
links, 165-166
mental models of, 232
response time, 134
short/long, 104, 107-108
testing, 237-238
text clarity, 160-161
titles, 142, 166
transaction page, 166-171
See also Text presentation
Web site, 127-146
content positioning, 130-133
context, 17
design guidelines, 31-33
map, 135-136, 140-141, 187
modeling, 33-35
navigation, 135-144
personalization, 128-130, 144
point of entry, 232-233
privacy/security, 144-145
quality, 146
response time, 134-135
search engines, 143-144
subsites, 132
testing, 238-239
visibility, 145
See also Site environment
Web tablet, 194
Wehrle, N., 207
Weise, E., 123
Wetherell, A., 136
White space, 151-152, 154
Whiteside, J., 18
Wickens, C. D., 135, 156
Wilkinson, L., 186
Williges, R. C., 75
Willis, M., 98
Wingfield, A., 105
Winograd, T., 193, 210
Wireless application protocol (WAP), 192
Wireless device, 189-212
context, 194, 197-198
design guidelines, 211-212
information presentation, 207-209
mobile phones, 189-191, 206-208
PDAs, 189-191
protocols, 192-193
screen size, 191, 198-206
study of, 194-197
Wireless markup language (WML), 192
Word selection, 160
Worden, A., 95, 104
Working memory (WM), 42-43, 45, 151-152
World Wide Web, 6
and GUIs, 8-10
information processing, 79
older users, 93-94

X

Xerox Star, 4

Y

Yeo, A., 214

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