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Separation Process Engineering, 2nd Edition

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Separation Process Engineering, 2nd Edition

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Description

  • Copyright 2007
  • Dimensions: 7 X 9-1/4
  • Pages: 704
  • Edition: 2nd
  • eBook (Adobe DRM)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-244113-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-244113-1

The Comprehensive Introduction to Standard and Advanced Separation for Every Chemical Engineer

Separation Process Engineering, Second Edition helps readers thoroughly master both standard equilibrium staged separations and the latest new processes. The author explains key separation process with exceptional clarity, realistic examples, and end-of-chapter simulation exercises using Aspen Plus.

The book starts by reviewing core concepts, such as equilibrium and unit operations; then introduces a step-by-step process for solving separation problems. Next, it introduces each leading processes, including advanced processes such as membrane separation, adsorption, and chromatography. For each process, the author presents essential principles, techniques, and equations, as well as detailed examples.

Separation Process Engineering is the new, thoroughly updated edition of the author's previous book, Equilibrium Staged Separations. Enhancements include improved organization, extensive new coverage, and more than 75% new homework problems, all tested in the author's Purdue University classes.

Coverage includes

  • Detailed problems with real data, organized in a common format for easier understanding
  • Modular simulation exercises that support courses taught with simulators without creating confusion in courses that do not use them
  • Extensive new coverage of membrane separations, including gas permeation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, pervaporation, and key applications
  • A detailed introduction to adsorption, chromatography and ion exchange: everything students need to understand advanced work in these areas
  • Discussions of standard equilibrium stage processes, including flash distillation, continuous column distillation, batch distillation, absorption, stripping, and extraction


Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Author xix

Nomenclature xxi

Chapter 1: Introduction to Separation Process Engineering 1

1.1. Importance of Separations 1

1.2. Concept of Equilibrium 2

1.3. Mass Transfer 4

1.4. Problem-Solving Methods 5

1.5. Prerequisite Material 7

1.6. Other Resources on Separation Process Engineering 8

1.7. Summary—Objectives 9

References 9

Homework 10

Chapter 2: Flash Distillation 12

2.1. Basic Method of Flash Distillation 12

2.2. Form and Sources of Equilibrium Data 14

2.3. Graphical Representation of Binary VLE 16

2.4. Binary Flash Distillation 21

2.5. Multicomponent VLE 29

2.6. Multicomponent Flash Distillation 34

2.7. Simultaneous Multicomponent Convergence 40

2.8. Size Calculation 45

2.9. Utilizing Existing Flash Drums 49

2.10. Summary—Objectives 50

References 51

Homework 52

Appendix: Computer Simulation of Flash Distillation 59

Chapter 3: Introduction to Column Distillation 65

3.1. Developing a Distillation Cascade 65

3.2. Distillation Equipment 72

3.3. Specifications 74

3.4. External Column Balances 76

3.5. Summary—Objectives 81

References 81

Homework 81

Chapter 4: Column Distillation: Internal Stage-by-Stage Balances 86

4.1. Internal Balances 86

4.2. Binary Stage-by-Stage Solution Methods 90

4.3. Introduction to the McCabe-Thiele Method 97

4.4. Feed Line 101

4.5. Complete McCabe-Thiele Method 109

4.6. Profiles for Binary Distillation 112

4.7. Open Steam Heating 114

4.8. General McCabe-Thiele Analysis Procedure 118

4.9. Other Distillation Column Situations 125

4.10. Limiting Operating Conditions 130

4.11. Efficiencies 133

4.12. Simulation Problems 135

4.13. New Uses for Old Columns 136

4.14. Subcooled Reflux and Superheated Boilup 138

4.15. Comparisons between Analytical and Graphical Methods 140

4.16. Summary—Objectives 142

References 143

Homework 144

Appendix: Computer Simulations for Binary Distillation 157

Chapter 5: Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation 161

5.1. Calculational Difficulties 161

5.2. Profiles for Multicomponent Distillation 167

5.3. Summary—Objectives 172

References 172

Homework 172

Chapter 6: Exact Calculation Procedures for Multicomponent Distillation 176

6.1. Introduction to Matrix Solution for Multicomponent Distillation 176

6.2. Component Mass Balances in Matrix Form 178

6.3. Initial Guess for Flow Rates 181

6.4. Bubble-Point Calculations 181

6.5. θ-Method of Convergence 184

6.6. Energy Balances in Matrix Form 191

6.7. Summary—Objectives 194

References 195

Homework 195

Appendix: Computer Simulations for Multicomponent Column Distillation 200

Chapter 7: Approximate Shortcut Methods for Multicomponent Distillation 205

7.1. Total Reflux: Fenske Equation 205

7.2. Minimum Reflux: Underwood Equations 210

7.3. Gilliland Correlation for Number of Stages at Finite Reflux Ratio 215

7.4. Summary—Objectives 219

References 219

Homework 220

Chapter 8: Introduction to Complex Distillation Methods 225

8.1. Breaking Azeotropes with Other Separators 225

8.2. Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Processes 227

8.3. Steam Distillation 234

8.4. Two-Pressure Distillation Processes 238

8.5. Complex Ternary Distillation Systems 240

8.6. Extractive Distillation 246

8.7. Azeotropic Distillation with Added Solvent 251

8.8. Distillation with Chemical Reaction 254

8.9. Summary—Objectives 258

References 259

Homework 260

Appendix: Simulation of Complex Distillation Systems 270

Chapter 9: Batch Distillation 276

9.1. Binary Batch Distillation: Rayleigh Equation 278

9.2. Simple Binary Batch Distillation 279

9.3. Constant-Level Batch Distillation 283

9.4. Batch Steam Distillation 284

9.5. Multistage Batch Distillation 285

9.6. Operating Time 291

9.7. Summary—Objectives 292

References 292

Homework 293

Chapter 10: Staged and Packed Column Design 301

10.1. Staged Column Equipment Description 301

10.2. Tray Efficiencies 309

10.3. Column Diameter Calculations 314

10.4. Sieve Tray Layout and Tray Hydraulics 320

10.5. Valve Tray Design 327

10.6. Introduction to Packed Column Design 329

10.7. Packed Column Internals 329

10.8. Height of Packing: HETP Method 331

10.9. Packed Column Flooding and Diameter Calculation 333

10.10. Economic Trade-Offs 341

10.11. Summary—Objectives 345

References 345

Homework 348

Chapter 11: Economics and Energy Conservation in Distillation 354

11.1. Distillation Costs 354

11.2. Operating Effects on Costs 359

11.3. Changes in Plant Operating Rates 366

11.4. Energy Conservation in Distillation 366

11.5. Synthesis of Column Sequences for Almost Ideal Multicomponent Distillation 370

11.6. Synthesis of Distillation Systems for Nonideal Ternary Systems 376

11.7. Summary—Objectives 380

References 380

Homework 382

Chapter 12: Absorption and Stripping 385

12.1. Absorption and Stripping Equilibria 387

12.2. Operating Lines for Absorption 389

12.3. Stripping Analysis 394

12.4. Column Diameter 396

12.5. Analytical Solution: Kremser Equation 397

12.6. Dilute Multisolute Absorbers and Strippers 403

12.7. Matrix Solution for Concentrated Absorbers and Strippers 406

12.8. Irreversible Absorption 410

12.9. Summary—Objectives 411

References 412

Homework 413

Appendix: Computer Simulations for Absorption and Stripping 421

Chapter 13: Immiscible Extraction, Washing, Leaching, and Supercritical Extraction 424

13.1. Extraction Processes and Equipment 424

13.2. Countercurrent Extraction 428

13.3. Dilute Fractional Extraction 435

13.4. Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Extraction 439

13.5. Concentrated Immiscible Extraction 443

13.6. Batch Extraction 444

13.7. Generalized McCabe-Thiele and Kremser Procedures 445

13.8. Washing 448

13.9. Leaching 452

13.10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction 454

13.11. Application to Other Separations 457

13.12. Summary—Objectives 457

References 457

Homework 459

Chapter 14: Extraction of Partially Miscible Systems 468

14.1. Extraction Equilibria 468

14.2. Mixing Calculations and the Lever-Arm Rule 471

14.3. Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Systems 474

14.4. Countercurrent Extraction Cascades 477

14.5. Relationship between McCabe-Thiele and Triangular Diagrams 485

14.6. Minimum Solvent Rate 486

14.7. Extraction Computer Simulations 488

14.8. Leaching with Variable Flow Rates 489

14.9. Summary—Objectives 492

References 492

Homework 493

Appendix: Computer Simulation of Extraction 499

Chapter 15: Mass Transfer Analysis 501

15.1. Basics of Mass Transfer 501

15.2. HTU-NTU Analysis of Packed Distillation Columns 504

15.3. Relationship of HETP and HTU 511

15.4. Mass Transfer Correlations for Packed Towers 513

15.5. HTU-NTU Analysis of Absorbers and Strippers 521

15.6. HTU-NTU Analysis of Co-current Absorbers 526

15.7. Mass Transfer on a Tray 528

15.8. Summary—Objectives 531

References 531

Homework 532

Chapter 16: Introduction to Membrane Separation Processes 535

16.1. Membrane Separation Equipment 537

16.2. Membrane Concepts 541

16.3. Gas Permeation 544

16.4. Reverse Osmosis 558

16.5. Ultrafiltration 573

16.6. Pervaporation 579

16.7. Bulk Flow Pattern Effects 588

16.8. Summary—Objectives 595

References 596

Homework 597

Appendix: Spreadsheets for Flow Pattern Calculations for Gas Permeation 603

Chapter 17 Introduction to Adsorption, Chromatography, and Ion Exchange 609

17.1. Sorbents and Sorption Equilibrium 610

17.2. Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Basics and Applications to Chromatography 621

17.3. Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Thermal and Pressure Swing Adsorption and Simulated Moving Beds 631

17.4. Nonlinear Solute Movement Analysis 654

17.5. Ion Exchange 663

17.6. Mass and Energy Transfer 672

17.7. Mass Transfer Solutions for Linear Systems 678

17.8. LUB Approach for Nonlinear Systems 687

17.9. Checklist for Practical Design and Operation 692

17.10. Summary—Objectives 693

References 693

Homework 696

Appendix: Introduction to the Aspen Chromatography Simulator 708

Appendix A: Aspen Plus Troubleshooting Guide for Separations 713

Answers to Selected Problems 715

Index 721

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