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To build wireless systems that deliver maximum performance and reliability, engineers need a detailed understanding of radio propagation. Drawing on over 15 years of experience, leading wireless communications researcher Henry Bertoni presents the most complete discussion of techniques for predicting radio propagation ever published. From its insightful introduction on spectrum reuse to its state-of-the-art real-world models for buildings, terrain, and foliage, Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems delivers invaluable information for every wireless system designer. Coverage provides:
From start to finish, Radio Propagation for Modern Wireless Systems presents sophisticated models–and compares their results with actual field measurements. With thorough coverage and extensive examples from both narrowband and wideband systems, it can help any wireless designer deliver more powerful, cost-effective services.
1. The Cellular Concept and the Need for Propagation Prediction.
Concept of spatial reuse. Linear cells as an example of FDMA spectrum reuse. Hexagonal cells for area coverage. a--Symmetric reuse patterns. b--Interference for symmetric reuse patterns. Sectored cells. Spatial reuse for CDMA. Summary. Problems. References.
Narrowband signal measurements. a--Signal variation over small areas: fast fading. b--Variations of the small-area average: shadow fading. c--Separating shadow fading from range dependence. Slope-intercept models for macrocell range dependence. Range dependence for microcells: influence of street geometry. a--LOS paths. b--Zigzag and staircase paths in Sunset and Mission districts. c--Non-LOS paths in the high-rise core of San Francisco. Multipath model for fast fading and other narrowband effects. a--Frequency fading. b--Time-dependent fading. c--Doppler spread. d--Depolarization. Narrowband indoor signal propagation. a--Fast fading for indoor links. b--Distance dependence of small-area average. Channel response for pulsed excitation. a--Power delay profile. b--Fading characteristics of individual pulses. c--Measures of time-delay spread. d--Coherence bandwidth. Multipath observed at elevated base station antennas. Summary. Problems. References.
Plane waves in an unbounded region. a--Phasor notation. b--Propagation oblique to the coordinate axes. c--Fast fading due to several plane waves. d--Correlation function and Doppler spread. e--Fading at elevated base stations. Reflection of plane waves at planar boundaries --62 3.2a--Snell's law. b--Reflection and transmission coefficients for TE polarization. c--Reflection and transmission coefficients for TM polarization. d--Height gain for antennas above ground. e--Reflection of circularly polarized waves. Plane wave incidence on dielectric layers. a--Reflection at a brick wall. b--Reflection at walls with loss. c--Transmission through walls of uniform construction. d--Transmission through in-situ walls and floors. Summary. Problems. References.
Radiation of spherical waves. Receiving antennas, reciprocity, and path gain or loss. a--Path gain or loss. b--Effective area of a receiving antenna. c--Received power in the presence of a multipath. Two-ray model for propagation above a flat earth. a--Breakpoint distance. b--Two-slope regression fit. LOS Propagation in an urban canyon. Cylindrical waves. Summary. Problems. References.
Local nature of propagation. a--Evaluation of the field distortion. b--Interpretation of the local region in terms of Fresnel zones. Plane wave diffraction by an absorbing half-screen. a--Field in the illuminated region y > 0. b--Field in the shadow region y < 0. c--Geometrical theory of diffraction. d--Evaluating the Fresnel integral for y near the shadow boundary. e--Uniform theory of diffraction. Diffraction for other edges and for oblique incidence. a--Absorbing screen. b--Conducting screen. c--Right-angle wedge. d--Plane waves propagating oblique to the edge. Diffraction of spherical waves. a--Diffraction for rays incident at nearly right angles to the edge. b--Diffraction for rays that are oblique to the edge. c--Path gain for wireless applications. Diffraction by multiple edges. a--Two parallel edges. b--Two perpendicular edges. Summary. Problems. References.
Modeling propagation over rows of low buildings. a--Components of the path gain. b--Modeling PG2 by diffraction of the rooftop fields. Approaches to computing the reduction PG1 of the rooftop fields. a--Physical optics approach to computing field reduction. b--Solutions for uniform row spacing and building height. Plane wave incidence for macrocell predictions. a--Solution in terms of Borsma's functions. b--Using the settled field to find the path loss. Cylindrical wave incidence for microcell predictions. a--Solution in terms of Borsma's functions. b--Path loss for low base station antennas. c--Path loss for mobile-to-mobile propagation. d--Propagation oblique to rows of buildings. Numerical evaluation of fields for variable building height and row spacing. a--Windowing to terminate the integration. b--Discretization of the integration. c--Height dependence of the settled field. d--Influence of roof shape. Summary. Problems. References.
Shadow fading statistics. a--Variation of the rooftop fields. b--Combined variations for street-level signal. Modeling terrain effects. a--Paths with LOS to the rooftops near the subscriber. b--Paths with diffraction over bare wedge-shaped hills. c--Paths with diffraction over bare cylindrical hills. d--Diffraction of cylindrical waves over hills with buildings. e--Path loss formulas for building-covered hills. Modeling the effects of trees. a--Propagation to subscribers in forested areas. b--Path loss to subscribers in forest clearings. c--Rows of trees in residential areas. Summary. Problems. References.
Outdoor predictions using a two-dimensional building database. a--Image and pincushion methods. b--Ray contributions to total power. c--Comparison of predictions with measurements. Two-dimensional predictions for a Manhattan street grid. a--Path loss in turning one corner. b--Predictions made using two-dimensional ray methods. Outdoor predictions using a three-dimensional building database. a--Three-dimensional pincushion method. b--Vertical plane launch method. c--Slant plane-vertical plane method. d--Monte Carlo simulation of higher-order channel statistics. Indoor site-specific predictions. a--Transmission through floors. b--Effect of furniture and ceiling structure on propagation over a floor. Summary. Problems. References.