Modeling, analysis and simulation of chemical processes is increasingly central to the work of chemical engineers -- but it is rarely covered in depth in process design guides. This book fills that gap. It is a comprehensive introduction to process modeling and dynamics using the powerful MATLAB and SIMULINK analysis tools.KEY TOPICS:Start by understanding the rationale for process modeling, and why it is becoming so critically important. Then, review all the fundamental numerical techniques involved, including algebraic equations and numerical integration. Walk through linear systems analysis in detail, learning how to linearize non-linear models, solve linear nth Order ODE models, work with Laplace transforms and transfer function analysis, and much more. Finally, learn how to use today's increasingly-important non-linear techniques, such as phase plane analysis, quadratic maps bifurcation behavior, and analysis of chaotic behavior via Lorenz equations.MARKET:For all chemical engineers, from Ph.D. professionals to non-degreed technicians and students.
I. PROCESS MODELING.1. Introduction.
Motivation. Models. Systems. Background of the Reader. How To Use This Textbook. Courses Where This Textbook Can Be Used.2. Process Modeling.
Background. Balance Equations. Material Balances. Constitutive Relationships. Material and Energy Balances. Distributes Parameter Systems. Dimensionless Models. Explicit Solutions to Dynamic Models. General Form of Dynamic Models.
II. NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES.3. Algebraic Equations.
Notations. General Form for a Linear System of Equations. Nonlinear Functions of a Single Variable. MATLAB Routines for Solving Functions of a Single Variable. Multivariable Systems. MATLAB Routines for Systems of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations.4. Numerical Integration.
Background. Euler Integration. Runge-Kutta Integration. MATLAB Integration Routines.
III. LINEAR SYSTEMS ANALYSIS.5. Linearization of Nonlinear Models: The State-Space Formulation.
State Space Models. Linearization of Nonlinear Models. Interpretation of Linearization. Solution of the Zero-Input Form. Solution of the General State-Space Form. MATLAB Routines step and initial.6. Solving Linear nth Order ODE Models.
Background. Solving Homogeneous, Linear ODEs with Constant Coefficients. Solving Nonhomogeneous, Linear ODEs with Constant Coefficients. Equations with Time-Varying Parameters. Routh Stability Criterion—Determining Stability Without Calculating Eigenvalues.7. An Introduction to Laplace Transforms.
Motivation. Definition of the Laplace Transform. Examples of Laplace Transforms. Final and Initial Value Theorems. Application Examples.Table of Laplace Transforms.
Perspective. Responses of First-Order Systems. Examples of Self-Regulating Processes. Integrating Processes. Lead-Lag Models.9. Transfer Function Analysis of Higher-Order Systems.
Responses of Second-Order Systems. Second-Order Systems with Numerator Dynamics. The Effect of Pole-Zero Locations on System Step Responses. Pad Approximation for Deadtime. Converting the Transfer Function Model to State-Space Form. MATLAB Routines for Step and Impulse Response.10. Matrix Transfer Functions.
A Second-Order Example. The General Method. MATLAB Routine ss2tf.11. Block Diagrams.
Introduction to Block Diagrams. Block Diagrams of Systems in Series. Pole-Zero Cancellation. Systems in Series. Blocks in Parallel. Feedback and Recycle Systems. Routh Stability Criterion Applied to Transfer Functions. SIMULINK.12. Linear Systems Summary.
Background. Linear Boundary Value Problems. Review of Methods for Linear Initial Value Problems. Introduction to Discrete-Time Models. Parameter Estimation of Discrete Linear Systems.
IV. NONLINEAR SYSTEMS ANALYSIS.13. Phase-Plane Analysis.
Background. Linear System Examples. Generalization of Phase-Plane Behavior. Nonlinear Systems.14. Introduction Nonlinear Dynamics: A Case Study of the Quadratic Map.
Background. A Simple Population Growth Model. A More Realistic Population Model. Cobweb Diagrams. Bifurcation and Orbit Diagrams. Stability of Fixed-Point Solutions. Cascade of Period-Doublings. Further Comments on Chaotic Behavior.15. Bifurcation Behavior of Single ODE Systems.
Motivation. Illustration of Bifurcation Behavior. Types of Bifurcations.16. Bifurcation Behavior of Two-State Systems.
Background. Single-Dimensional Bifurcations in the Phase-Plane. Limit Cycle Behavior. The Hopf Bifurcation.17. Introduction to Chaos: The Lorenz Equations.
Introduction. Background. The Lorenz Equations. Stability Analysis of the Lorenz Equations. Numerical Study of the Lorenz Equations. Chaos in Chemical Systems. Other Issues in Chaos.
IV. REVIEW AND LEARNING MODULES.
Module 1 Introduction to MATLAB. Module 2 Review of Matrix Algebra. Module 3 Linear Regression. Module 4 Introduction to SIMULINK. Module 5 Stirred Tank Heaters. Module 6 Absorption. Module 7 Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Chemical Reactors. Module 8 Biochemical Reactors. Module 9 Diabatic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors. Module 10 Ideal Binary Distillation.Index.
An understanding of the dynamic behavior of chemical processes is important from both process design and process control perspectives. It is easy to design a chemical process, based on steady-state considerations, which is practically uncontrollable when the process dynamics are considered. The current status of computational hardware and software has made it easy to interactively simulate the dynamic behavior of chemical processes. It is common for process dynamics to be included as the introductory portion of a process control textbook, however, there are a number of limitations to this approach. Since the emphasis of most of the textbooks is on process control, there is too little space to give adequate depth to modeling, analysis, and simulation of dynamic systems. The focus tends to be on transfer function-based models that are used for control system design. The prime motivation for my textbook is then to provide a more comprehensive treatment of process dynamics, including modeling, analysis, and simulation. This textbook evolved from notes developed for a course on dynamic systems that I have been teaching at Rensselaer since 1991. We have been fortunate to have a two-semester sequence in dynamics and control, allowing more depth to the coverage of each topic. Topics covered here that are not covered in a traditional text include nonlinear dynamics and the use of MATLAB for numerical analysis and simulation. Also, a significant portion of the text consists of review and learning modules. Each learning module provides model development, steady-state solutions, nonlinear dynamic results, linearization, state space and transfer function analysis and simulation. The motivation for this approach is to allow the student to "tie-together" all of the concepts, rather than treating them independently (and not understanding the connections between the different methods).
An important feature of this text is the use of MATLAB software. A set of m-files used in many of the examples and in the learning modules is available via the world wide web at the following locations:
http:/www/rpi.edu/-bequeb/Process_Dynamics http:/www.mathworks.com/education/thirdparty.html Additional learning modules will also be available at the RPI location.
A few acknowledgments are in order. A special thanks to Professor Jim Turpin at the University of Arkansas, who taught me the introductory course in process dynamics and control. His love of teaching should be an inspiration to us all. Many thanks to one of my graduate students, Lou Russo, who not only made a number of suggestions to improve the text, but also sparked an interest in many of the undergraduates that have taken the course. The task of developing a solutions manual has been carried out by Venkatesh Natarajan, Brian Aufderheide, Ramesh Rao, Vinay Prasad, and Kevin Schott. Preliminary drafts of many chapters were developed over cappuccinos at the Daily Grind in Albany and Troy. Bass Ale served at the El Dorado in Troy promoted discussions about teaching (and other somewhat unrelated topics) with my graduate students; the effect of the many Buffalo wings is still unclear. Final revisions to the textbook were done under the influence of cappuccinos at Cafe Avanti in Chicago (while there is a lot of effort in developing interactive classroom environments at Rensselaer, my ideal study environment looks much like a coffee shop).
Teaching and learning should be dynamic processes. I would appreciate any comments and suggestions that you have on this textbook. I will use the WWW site to provide updated examples, additional problems with solutions, and suggestions for teaching and studying process dynamics.
B. Wayne Bequette