The practical guide to large-scale networking with OSPF and IS-IS
This is the definitive guide to using OSPF and IS-IS protocols in large-scale IP enterprise, carrier, and service provider networks. Well-known network designer Jeff Doyle draws on his consulting experience, offering realistic advice and straight answers on every aspect of working with link-state protocolsfrom scalability, reliability, and security to area design and database synchronization.
This book is organized to help network engineers and architects compare OSPF and IS-IS. One feature at a time, Doyle first demonstrates how a topic or feature is implemented in OSPF, and then walks through a similar implementation using IS-IS. Professionals who are relatively new to large-scale networking will welcome his practical introduction to the concepts, goals, and history of link state protocols. Coverage includes
Understanding message types, encapsulation, architecture, LSAs, and LSPs
Optimizing addressing, neighbor discovery, adjacencies, and router designation
Improving scalability: controlling the scope of flooding, link state database size, SPF calculation efficiency, and much more
Designing and operating large-scale networks for maximum security and reliability
Hardening networks to thwart attacks against routing protocols
Comparing OSPF and IS-IS extensibility
Utilizing extensions for MPLS-based traffic engineering, IPv6, and multi-topology routing
Troubleshooting OSPF and IS-IS log entries, debug output, and LS databases
Doyle's thorough explanations, end-of-chapter review questions, and many wide-ranging examples for both Cisco's IOS and Juniper's JUNOS also make this book an exceptional resource for anyone pursuing a CCIE or JNCIE certification.
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About the Author.
What Is a Large-Scale Data Communications Network?
A Word on IOS and JUNOS.
1. The Roots of LinkState Protocols.
An Intergalactic Network.
The Network Working Group.
The Birth of the Internet.
Routing in the ARPANET.
The European Invasion.
Separate But Equal.
2. LinkState Basics.
Vector Protocol Basics.
Vector Protocol Convergence.
Common Characteristics of Vector Protocols .
Fundamental Link State Concepts.
3. Message Types.
LSAs and LSPs.
Subnetwork Dependent and Independent Functions.
Subnetwork Dependent Functions.
Subnetwork Independent Functions.
4. Addressing, Neighbor Discovery, and Adjacencies.
Router and Area IDs.
OSPF Router IDs.
Troubleshooting: Duplicate Router IDs.
OSPF Area IDs.
IS-IS System and Area IDs.
The Hello Protocol.
OSPF Hello Protocol Basics.
IS-IS Hello Protocol Basics.
IS-IS Dynamic Hostname Exchange.
OSPF Domain Name Lookup.
OSPF Designated Routers.
IS-IS Designated Intermediate Systems.
OSPF Network Types.
IS-IS Network Types.
The OSPF Interface Data Structure.
OSPF Interface States.
The IS-IS Interface Data Structure.
Areas and Router Types.
OSPF Areas and Router Types.
IS-IS Areas and Router Types.
Network Summary LSAs.
ASBR Summary LSAs.
Area Addresses TLV.
IS Neighbors TLV.
Protocols Supported TLV.
IP Interface Addresses TLV.
IP Internal Reachability Information TLV.
IP External Reachability Information TLV.
Extended IS Reachability TLV.
Extended IP Reachability TLV.
6. LinkState Database Synchronization.
OSPF Database Synchronization.
OSPF Packets Used in Database Synchronization.
The Options Field.
The OSPF Neighbor Data Structure.
LSA Lists for Database Exchange and Flooding.
Database Exchange Management: Masters and Slaves.
The OSPF Neighbor State Machine.
Troubleshooting: Reading OSPF Log Entries and Debug Output.
Troubleshooting: Comparing OSPF LS Databases.
IS-IS Database Synchronization.
IS-IS PDUs Used in Synchronization.
Send Routing Message and Send Sequence Number Flags.
Synchronization on Point-to-Point Networks.
Synchronization on Broadcast Networks.
Troubleshooting: Reading IS-IS Log Entries and Debug Output.
Troubleshooting: Comparing IS-IS LS Databases.
7. Area Design.
Backbone and Non-Backbone Areas.
Factors for Scaling OSPF Areas.
External Prefixes and OSPF Scaling.
Totally Stubby Areas.
Backbone and Non-Backbone Areas.
Factors for Scaling IS-IS Areas.
Default IS-IS L1 Area Behavior.
Redundant L1/L2 Routers.
Address Summarization, Again.
L2 to L1 Route Leaking.
Redistributing External Prefixes into IS-IS.
Multiple Area IDs.
IS-IS Virtual Links.
BGP and Area Design.
Pseudonodes and ECMP.
Incremental SPF Calculations.
Partial Route Calculations.
Demand Circuits and Flood Reduction.
9. Security and Reliability.
Routing Protocol Vulnerabilities.
Security and Reliability Features.
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection.
Designing for Security and Reliability.
Protecting the Domain Edge.
Protecting the Router.
Operating for Security and Reliability.
The Network Lab.
The OSPF Extensibility Problem.
The Router Information Opaque LSA.
The IS-IS Extensibility Advantage.
The Protocols Supported TLV.
11. Extensions for MPLS Traffic Engineering.
MPLS: An Overview.
Labels and Label Switching.
Forwarding Equivalence Classes and Label Binding.
The MPLS Header.
Traffic Engineering: An Overview.
TE Link Parameters.
Constrained Shortest Path First.
OSPF Extensions for Traffic Engineering.
IS-IS Extensions for Traffic Engineering.
12. Extensions for IPv6.
IPv6: An Overview.
IPv6 Features and Functions.
IPv6 Address Format.
IPv6 Address Representation.
The Neighbor Discovery Protocol.
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration.
IPv6 Header Format.
IPv4 and IPv6 Compatibility in OSPF.
Differences from OSPFv2.
The Options Field.
Future Extensions to OSPFv3.
IS-IS Extensions for IPv6.
13. Extensions for Multi-Topology Routing.
OSPF Extensions for Multi-Topology Routing.
IS-IS Extensions for Multi-Topology Routing.
AFTERWORD: The Future of LinkState Protocols.
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