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Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) with a Touch of SDN, Rough Cuts

Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) with a Touch of SDN, Rough Cuts

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Description

  • Copyright 2017
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 368
  • Edition: 1st
  • Rough Cuts
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-446434-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-446434-3

This is the Rough Cut version of the printed book.

Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) will drive dramatic cost reductions while also accelerating service delivery. Using NFV with SDN, network owners can provision new functions rapidly on demand, improve scalability, and leverage microservices. Benefits like these will make NFV indispensable for service providers, mobile operators, telcos, and enterprises alike.

 

Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) with a Touch of SDN is the first practical introduction to NFV’s fundamental concepts, techniques, and use cases. Written for wide audiences of network engineers, architects, planners, and operators, it assumes no previous knowledge of NFV architecture, deployment, or management.

 

The authors first explain how virtualization, VMs, containers, and related technologies establish the foundation for the NFV transformation. Next, they show how these concepts and technologies can be applied to virtualize network functions in the cloud, data centers, routing, security, and the mobile packet core.


You’ll discover new tools and techniques for managing and orchestrating virtualized network devices, and gain new clarity on how SDN and NFV interact and interrelate. By the time you’re done, you’ll be ready to assess vendor claims, evaluate architectures, and plan NFV’s role in your own networks.


  • Understand NFV’s key benefits and market drivers
  • Review how virtualization makes NFV possible
  • Consider key issues associated with NFV network design and deployment
  • Integrate NFV into existing network designs
  • Orchestrate, build, and deploy NFV networks and cloud services
  • Maximize operational efficiency by building more programmable, automated networks
  • Understand how NFV and SDN work together
  • Address security, programmability, performance, and service function chaining
  • Preview evolving concepts that will shape NFV’s future

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

About the Technical Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi

Chapter 1: The Journey to Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) Era . . .1

    The Evolution of Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

        Traditional Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

        Introducing NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    NFV Architectural Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

        Need for a Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

        ETSI Framework for NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

        Understanding the ETSI Framework . . . . . . . . . . . 10

        A Closer Look at ETSI’s NFV Framework . . . . . . . . . 13

        NFV Framework Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    Benefits of NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

        Hardware Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

        Faster Service Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

        Scalability and Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

        Leveraging Existing Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

        Rapid Development and Vendor Independence . . . . . . . 29

        Validation of New Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

        Amorphous Service Offering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

        Operational Efficiency and Agility . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    NFV Market Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

        Movement to Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

        New Business Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

        Capital Expense Savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

        Operational Expense Savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

        Barrier of Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Chapter 2: Virtualization Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

    History and Background of Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

        Virtualization Benefits and Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

        Server Virtualization, Network Virtualization, and NFV . . . 41

        Virtualization Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

        Virtualization versus Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

        Components of a Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

        Resource Allocation to the Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . 53

        Network Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

        Packaging a Virtual Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

        Commonly Used Hypervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    Linux Containers and Docker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

        Understanding Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

        Container versus Virtual Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

        Application Container and OS Container . . . . . . . . . 70

        Enter Docker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

        Container Packaging–Beyond Docker . . . . . . . . . . 76

    Single and Multitenant Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    Virtualization and NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

    Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Chapter 3: Virtualization of Network Functions . . . . . . . . . . .83

    Designing NFV Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

        NFV Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

        NFV Transformation Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

    Virtualization of Network Infrastructure and Services . . . . . . . 118

        NFV for Routing Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

        Virtualization of Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . 127

        Virtualization of Mobile Communication Networks . . . . 129

    Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

Chapter 4: NFV Deployment in the Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . .137

    What’s in a Cloud? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

        Characteristics of Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

        Cloud-Based Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

        Cloud Deployment Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

        NFV and Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

    Revisiting ETSI Management and Orchestration Block . . . . . . 145

        MANO Data Repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

    Orchestrating, Deploying, and Managing NFV Infrastructure . . . . 157

        Hardware Virtualization Deployment Options . . . . . . . 158

        Deploying Virtual Machines and Containers . . . . . . . 160

        Software and Tools for NFVI Deployment . . . . . . . . 164

    Introduction to OpenStack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

        So What Is OpenStack? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

        A Brief History of OpenStack . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

        OpenStack Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

        OpenStack Deployment Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

        OpenStack Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

        OpenStack Deployment Nodes Revisited . . . . . . . . . 192

        OpenStack High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

        Live Migration for VNF mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

        Deploying OpenStack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

        Using OpenStack as VIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

    Life Cycle Management of VNFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

        VNFM Software Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

    Orchestration and Deployment of Network Services . . . . . . . 214

        Cisco’s Network Service Orchestrator . . . . . . . . . . 214

        Telefonica’s OpenMANO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

        Brocade VNF Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

        Nokia’s CloudBand Network Director . . . . . . . . . . 215

        Ciena’s Blue Planet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

        HP’s NFV Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

        Ericsson Cloud Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

        OpenStack Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

        RIFT.io’s RIFT.ware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

    NFV MANO and Open Source Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

        Open Platform NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

        Open Orchestration Project (Open-O) . . . . . . . . . . 218

        Open Source MANO (OSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

    Describing Network Service Descriptor . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

        Juju Charms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

        HOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

        TOSCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

    Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

Chapter 5: Software Defined Networking (SDN) . . . . . . . . . . .227

    Basic Concepts of SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

        What is SDN? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

        Advantages of SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

    SDN Implementation and Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

        Introduction to SDN Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

        SDN Implementation Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

        SDN Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

    SDN Use-Cases for Different Networking Domains . . . . . . . . 251

        SDN in the Data Center (SDN DC) . . . . . . . . . . . 251

        SDN in Service Provider Cloud (SP SDN) . . . . . . . . . 254

        SDN in Wide-Area Networks (SD WAN) . . . . . . . . . 257

        Enterprise SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

        Transport SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

    Revisiting SDN Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

        Open Source SDN Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

        Commercial SDN Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

    SDN Correlation with NFV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

        CORD–An Example of NFV and SDN Working Together . . 276

    Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

Chapter 6: Stitching It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285

    Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

    Service Function Chaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

        Service Chaining in a Traditional Network . . . . . . . . 288

        Service Function Chaining for Cloud Scaling . . . . . . . 289

        Network Service Header (NSH) . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

        Other Protocols for SFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

        Service Chaining Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

    How Virtual Machines Communicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

        Virtual Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

        Single Root Input/Output Virtualization and

        Sharing (SR-IOV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

        Direct Memory Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

    Enhancing vSwitch Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

        Data Plane Development Kit (DPDK) . . . . . . . . . . 309

        Vector Packet Processing (VPP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

    Data Performance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

        CPU Usage Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

        Optimized Use of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

    Programmability in a Virtualized Network . . . . . . . . . . . 317

    Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

    Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Appendix A: Answers to Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

9780134463056, TOC, 10/28/2016

    

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