1. Toward a Process View of Negotiations.
Put Yourself in This Position. Some Common Perceptions. Need For a Structured Approach. Adopting a New Paradigm. Examples of Paradigms in Negotiations. Why These Paradigms Must Change. Why This Book?
Negotiating Process. Petrie Stores Sale to Employees. Conflict in Bosnia. Prudential Entry into the Mutual Funds Business. Some Essentially Completed Negotiations. TCI-Bell Atlantic. U.S.—Japan Trade. Iranian Hostages. Need for a Process. Step 1: Analyzing the Negotiation Situation: The Importance of Issue Definition and Environmental Factors. GE vs. Unions. Reagan vs. PATCO. Step 2: Planning for the Upcoming Negotiations: Establish Common Objectives for the Negotiations. Step 3: Organizing for Effective Negotiations. Strategic Considerations. Why a Step-By-Step Process Helps. The Crucial Role of Negotiation Planning. Step 4: Gaining and Taking Control. Step 5: Closing Negotiations. Step 6: Continuous Improvement.
Introduction. Considering the Negotiation Environment. Business- to-Business Negotiations. Personal Negotiation. Government-to-Government. Strategic Concerns. Determining Needs. Priorities. Identifying Constraints.
Staffing the Negotiation Team. Developing a Game Plan. Agenda. Insuring the Completeness and Currency of the Plan. Testing the Validity of the Plan. Testing the Plan: Two-Person Limited Focus Negotiation. Testing the Plan: Large-Scale Team Negotiations. Adjusting the Plan. Be Ready for Surprises.
Gaining Control. The Role of Agendas in Maintaining Control. You Set the Agenda With Their Help. Regaining Control: An Example. Reaching Consensus. Consensus Building: An Example. Resolving Conflict Through Communication. Negotiating in a High-Tech. Environment. The Process. The Options. The Tactics. Conclusion.
Dealing with Objections. Uncovering the Root Cause. The Importance of Attitude. Turning Objections into Agreements. Breakthrough Thinking. Making Breakthroughs Happen. Selling. Leases. Labor Disputes. Government-to- Government. Personal Considerations. Brainstorming Alternatives. Dealbreakers. Assessing the Level of Support for a Proposed Solution. Packaging the Details of the Negotiation.
Negotiation Situation Data. Step 1: Analyzing the Negotiation Situation. Step 2: Planning for the Upcoming Negotiations. Step 3: Organizing for Effective Negotiations. Step 4: Taking Control. Step 5: Closing Negotiations. Step 6: Continuous Improvement.
This book offers a simple, systematic approach to a subject that can be complex, daunting, and full of surprises-the art and technique of negotiation. While we are often aware of and impressed by the celebrated negotiators of the world; government representatives, athletes, or entertainers; all of us are called upon at some point to pick up the gauntlet and attempt to settle a difference by amiable discussion.
Our ability to negotiate competently affects every aspect of our life and work; the prices we pay for capital purchases and real estate, the procurement of loans, career moves, and the happiness of the people around us. So why have we overlooked deve loping this skill and why do we have such difficulty negotiating? We, the authors, believe that individuals lack a dependable and effective process to accomplish negotiations. We wrote this book to provide such a process to anyone who wishes to negotiate anything.
We recognized a need for simplifying what seems to many to be a complex and often intimidating process. We thus separated the negotiating process into six manageable phases which, if followed carefully, will lead to successful resolution of dispute. The model we have developed can be used as a skeleton for analyzing and planning the simplest negotiation or as a structure on which to build a plan for the most complex, team-bargaining session.
Our model covers the spectrum of activity from preliminary planning to negotiation discussion to post-agreement and continuous improvement efforts. We believe that our six step approach provides the individual with the opportunity to refine his or he r negotiating skills, regardless of negotiation history.
One advantage of our model is that it divides pre-negotiation planning into three distinct steps. The first step concentrates on the strategic goals of the negotiation. The near-term or tactical objective is determined in the second step. In the thir d step, detailed plans and agendas are developed. The remaining three steps lead one through the actual negotiation phase. They concern gaining and maintaining control, closing negotiations, and continuous improvement techniques for reviewing perform ance. The most important benefit of this six step approach is that it provides the negotiator with a clear and definite outline for action that keeps the major, strategic goals in the forefront of the negotiation process.
This book, then, is about negotiation, a process that is universally practiced, but seldom mastered. We would like negotiators to be satisfied with their results. This is not to suggest that all negotiations should have a win/win outcome-sometimes there must be a loser. But we believe the techniques and attitudes required for win/win negotiation-clear communications, empathy, awareness of the opposition's interests, and a sense of fair play-will help the opposition to see the advantage of compromise, even if one's original objectives are not achieved.
With our 25 years of experience in training thousands of negotiators in the U.S. and abroad, we trust that readers will gain from this book and improve their future negotiations. We've exerted great effort to make this book easy to read and apply and with the concrete techniques, templates, case studies, and real-life examples that we have used, we hope the negotiation process comes to life for you. We wish all of you the best of negotiating in your future endeavors.