Networked multimedia communications: theory, principles, practical techniques, and examples.
As networks converge and bandwidth availability increases, networked multimedia communications systems are becoming increasingly powerful and ubiquitous. Multimedia Communication Systems is a comprehensive guide to the theory, principles, and practical techniques associated with implementing these systems. Three of the field's leading researchers review today's key developments in multimedia communications, ranging from the latest multimedia architectures to the implications of Internet2 for advanced multimedia delivery. They cover every aspect of multimedia communications system development, emphasizing emerging standards, advanced processing techniques, and network/traffic management.
With over 200 figures, more than 400 references, and an exceptionally wide range of practical examples, this book is a unique resource for every professional working with advanced multimedia technologies.
List of Acronyms.
1. Multimedia Communications.
Introduction. Multimedia Communication Model. Elements of Multimedia Systems. User Requirements. Network Requirements. Packet Transfer Concept. Multimedia Requirements and ATM Networks. Multimedia Terminals. Concluding Remarks.
Introduction. Media Interaction. Bimodality of Human Speech. Lip Reading. Speech-Driven Talking Heads. Lip Synchronization. Lip Tracking. Audio-to-Visual Mapping. Bimodal Person Verification. Joint Audio-Video Coding. Concluding Remarks.
Introduction. Digital Media. Signal-Processing Elements. Challenges of Multimedia Information Processing. Texture-Based Methods. Shape-Based Methods. Color-Based Methods. Perceptual Coding of Digital Audio Signals. Absolute Threshold of Hearing. Critical Band Frequency Analysis. Simultaneous Masking and the Spread of Masking. Temporal Masking. PE. Transform Audio Coders. Audio Subband Coders. Speech Coder Attributes. CD Audio Coding for Multimedia Applications. Image Coding. Video Coding. Watermarking. Organization, Storage and Retrieval Issues. Signal Processing for Networked Multimedia. NNs for Multimedia Processing. Multimedia Processors. Concluding Remarks.
Introduction. Main Features of a DMS. Resource Management of DMS. Networking. IP Networking. IP Multicast. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). RTP. Performance Management. Fault Management. Configuration Management. Security Management. Accounting and Billing Management. Multimedia Operating Systems. CPU Management. Memory Management. I/O Management. File System Management. Distributed Multimedia Servers. Distributed Multimedia Applications. VoD. Telecooperation Infrastructure. Telecooperative Applications. Telemedicine. Basic Features of a Hypermedia System. The Web. Concluding Remarks.
Introduction. MPEG Approach to Multimedia Standardization. MPEG-1 (Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio). MPEG-2 (Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio). MPEG-2 Video-The Basics. MPEG-2 Video Syntax. MPEG-2 Video Scalability. MPEG-2 Video: Profiles and Levels. MPEG-4-Coding of Audiovisual Objects. Media_Objects. MPEG-4 Version 1. MPEG-4 Version_2. Extensions to MPEG-4 Beyond Version 2. Profiles in MPEG-4. Verification Testing: Checking MPEG's Performance. MPEG-4 Standardization Process. Requirements for MPEG-4. MPEG-4 Systems Architecture. Elementary Stream Management (ESM). Auxiliary Descriptors and Streams. Structuring Content by Grouping of Streams. Managing Content Complexity. Distributed Content-Handling Considerations. System Decoder Model (SDM) for ES Synchronization. MPEG-4 Systems BIFS. DMIF Computational Model. Shape-Coding Tools for MPEG-4 Natural Video. Motion Estimation and Compensation. Texture-Coding Tools. Multifunctional Coding. Sprite Coding. Scalability. Error Resilience. Relationship Between Natural and Synthetic Video Coding. Synthetic Images. Integration of Face Animation with Natural Video. FAPs. Face Model. Coding of FAPs. FIT. Integration of Face Animation and Text-to-Speech (TTS) Synthesis. BIFS for Facial Animation. 2D Mesh Coding. VO Tracking. 2D-Mesh Object Encoder/Decoder. MPEG-4 Natural Audio Coding. General Audio Coding (Advanced Audio Coding Based). Twin VQ. Speech Coding in MPEG-4 Audio. Scalability in MPEG-4 Natural Audio. Synthetic Audio in MPEG-4. Audio BIFS. Visual Object Types. Visual Profiles. Audio Object Types. Audio Profiles. Graphics. Systems Profiles. MPEG-4 Visual Texture Coding (VTC) and JPEG 2000 Image Compression Standards. MPEG-4 VTC. JPEG. PNG. Region of Interest (ROI) Coding. Scalability. Error Resilience. IPRs. Error Resilience. MPEG-7 Standardization Process of Multimedia Content Description. MPEG-7 Systems. MPEG-7 DDL. MPEG-7 Audio. MPEG-7 Visual. MPEG-7 MMDSs. MPEG-7 Reference Software (XM). MPEG-7 Conformance. MPEG-21 Multimedia Framework. MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration. Content Representation. Digital Item Identification and Description. Content Management and Usage. Intellectual Property Management and Protection. Terminals and Networks. Event Reporting. ITU-T Standardization of Audiovisual Communication Systems (H.310, H.320, H.321, H.322, H.323, and H.324). H.320 Standard. Standards for Audiovisual Services Across ATM H.310 and H.321. Standard H.322-Guaranteed QoS LAN Systems. ITU-T H.323 Standard. H.324 Standard. H.261 Standard. H.263 Standard. H.263+ (H.263 Version 2) Standard. H.263++ Standard Development. H.26L Standard. Bit Rate_. Delay. Complexity. Quality. ITU-T Recommendation H.221. ITU-T Recommendation H.223. ITU-T Recommendation H.225. Common Control Protocol H.245_. IETF and Internet Standards. Classical IP Stack. IP Version 6_. Priority Field. Flow Label. IPv6 Addresses. Hop-by-Hop Options Header. Fragment Header_. Routing Header. IPv6 Security. Signaling. Session Control. Transport_. Network Infrastructure_. Multimedia Data for Network Use. Use of RTP_. System Architecture. MPEG-4 Server. MPEG-4 Client. Concluding Remarks.
Packet Audio/Video in the Network Environment. Video Transport Across Generic Networks. Layered Compression. Layered Transmission. Error-Resilient Encoding. Decoder Error Concealment. Error-Resilient Entropy Code. Rate Control Techniques. Theoretical Foundation of the SRC. Video Compression. Requirements Imposed by Streaming Applications. Application Layer QoS Control. Continuous Media Distribution Services. Streaming Servers. Media Synchronization. Protocols for Streaming Video. Multimedia Transport Across ATM Networks. Multimedia Across IP Networks. MPEG Video Transmission on the Internet. Video Coding for Multimedia Across IP. Multimedia Across DSLs. Serial Transmission: TDM. Parallel Transmission Frequency Division Multiplexing. Internet Access Networks. Multimedia Across Wireless. Communication System (WBCS) for Multimedia. Speech Transmission in GSM. Video Across GSM. Mobile ATM. Mobile IP. Wireless Multimedia Delivery. SIP in Mobile Environment. Multicast Routing in Cellular Networks. Broadband Wireless Mobile. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). Data Transmission Using MPEG-2 and DVB. MPEG Program Stream. MPEG Transport Stream. Broadband Multimedia Satellite Systems. Multimedia Home Platform. Multimedia Car Platform. Digital Television Infrastructure for Interactive Multimedia Services. Interactive Broadcast Data (IDB) Services. Data Carousel Concept. Concluding Remarks.
The past years have seen an explosion in the use of digital media. Industry is making significant investments to deliver digital audio, image and video information to consumers and customers. A new infrastructure of digital audio, image and video recorders and players; online services and electronic commerce is rapidly being deployed. At the same time, major corporations are converting their audio, image and video archives to an electronic form. Digital media offer several distinct advantages over analog media. The quality of digital audio, image and video signals is higher than that of their analog counterparts. Editing is easy because one can access the exact discrete locations that need to be changed. Copying is simple with no loss of fidelity. A copy of digital media is identical to the original. Digital audio, image and video are easily transmitted across networked information systems. These advantages have opened up many new possibilities.
Multimedia consists of
Multimedia data + Set of interactions. Multimedia data is informally considered as the collection of three Ms: multisource, multitype and multiformat data. The interactions among the multimedia components consist of complex relationships without which multimedia would be a simple set of visual, audio and other data.
Multimedia and multimedia communication can be globally viewed as a hierarchical system. The multimedia software and applications provide a direct interactive environment for users. When a computer requires information from remote computers or servers, multimedia information must travel through computer networks. Because the amount of information involved in the transmission of video and audio can be substantial, the multimedia information must be compressed before it can be sent through the network in order to reduce the communication delay. Constraints, such as limited delay and jitter, are used to ensure a reasonable video and audio effect at the receiving end. Therefore, communication networks are undergoing constant improvements in order to provide for multimedia communication capabilities. LANs are used to connect local computers and other equipment, and Wide Area Networks (WANs) and the Internet connect the LANs together. Better standards are constantly being developed, in order to provide a global information superhighway across which multimedia information will travel.
The book is organized into six chapters:
Chapter 1 describes the concept of multimedia communication modeling. It presents a brief description of elements for multimedia systems. After that, we discuss user and network requirements together with the packet transfer concept. An overview of multimedia terminals is also given.
Chapter 2 explains that multimedia communication is more than simply putting together text, audio, images and video. It reviews a recent trend in multimedia research to exploit the audio-visual interaction and to build the link between audio and video processing. The emphasis is on lip reading, synchronization and tracing audio-to-visual mapping as well as the bimodal person verification.
Chapter 3 is devoted to multimedia processing in communication. We present and analyze digital media and signal processing elements. Next, we describe a general framework for image copyright protection through digital watermarking. We then review the key attributes of neural processing essential to intelligent multimedia processing. Finally, this chapter concludes with recent large-scale-integration programmable processors designed for multimedia processing such as real-time compression and decompression of audio and video as well as the next generation of computer graphics.
Chapter 4 deals with the issues concerning distributed multimedia systems. We give an overview: main features, resource management, networking and multimedia operating systems. Next, we identify the applications like interactive television, telecooperation and hypermedia, and we survey the important enabling technologies.
Chapter 5 focuses on multimedia communication standards. We discuss Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG)-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-4 Visual Texture Coding (VTC), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)-2000, MPEG-7, MPEG-21, International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Sector (ITU-T) and Internet standards. We discuss the ITU-T standardization process in multimedia communications from the video and speech coding, as well as from multimedia, multiplex and synchronization points of view (H.320, H.321, H.322, H.323, H.262, H.263, H.26L, H.221, H.222, H.223 and H.225).
Chapter 6 concentrates on multimedia communication across networks. After an introduction about packet audio-video in the network environment, we discuss the concept of video transport across generic networks. Multimedia transport over ATM networks is described, too. We then move to multimedia across IP networks, including video transmission, traffic specification for MPEG video transmission on the Internet and bandwidth allocation mechanism. We present and illustrate the concepts of Internet access networks. In addition, we discuss special issues relating to multimedia across wireless networks such as wireless broadband communication for multimedia audiovisual solutions, mobile and broadcasting networks and digital TV infrastructure for interactive multimedia services.
Appendix A contains useful information available on the Internet: standardization organizations, associations, alliances, fora and consortia; documents, software and hardware reference, and a products and services list. No software is provided. The appendix can be downloaded at the following Web site:
The references are grouped according to the various chapters. Special efforts have been taken to make this list as up to date and exhaustive as possible.
A number of forces are driving communications, such as the following:
Multimedia Communication Systems provides a comprehensive coverage of various surveys of the current issues relating to multimedia communications. This book addresses the fundamentals of the major topics of the multimedia communication systems: audio-visual integration, multimedia processing in communications, distributed multimedia systems, multimedia communication standards and multimedia communications across networks.
We have focused our attention on these topics with the hope that the level of discussion provided will enable an engineer or a scientist to design multimedia communication systems or to conduct research on advanced and newly emerging topics. The objective of this book is not only to familiarize the reader with multimedia communication systems, but also to provide the underlying theory, concepts and principles related to these disciplines, including the power and the practical utility of the topics.
A major challenge during the preparation of this book was the rapid pace of development, both in software and hardware related to multimedia communication systems. We have tried to keep pace by including many of the latest developments. In this way, it is hoped that the book is timely and appeals to a wide audience in the engineering, scientific and technical communities. In addition, we have included more than 270 figures and more than 800 references. Although this book is primarily for graduate students, it can be also very useful for academia, researchers, scientists and engineers dealing with multimedia communication systems.